Download e-book for iPad: 44.Photonics Technology by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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For applications such as ICF (16), the coherence of the laser beam is modified in an attempt to resolve problems associated with the coupling of the laser to the ICF plasmas.

Finally, we note that very similar techniques are used at optical wavelength, including CPA, which is described in the section concerning optical coherence and quantum systems. COHERENCE IN QUANTUM DEVICES The other general type of electromagnetic source corresponds to quantum systems, where bound electrons can interact with the (external or virtual) radiation field. Three fundamental processes can occur in this situation: absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission. By comparison with the previously described, classical free-electron radiation sources, coherence now links and correlates the stimulated emission process, while spontaneous radiation is typically associated with incoherent radiation, where the statistical properties of the photon field correspond essentially to random noise fluctuations.

For an COHERENCE atom in the ground state, excitation is possible only if the atom absorbs a photon. The probability for this process, per unit time, is thus proportional to the photon energy density: B12 W(Ͷ). Finally, as will be shown, a third process must be allowed to balance the equations describing the evolution of the population in the ground and excited states. This process, postulated by Einstein, is called stimulated emission and has the probability B21 W(Ͷ). For a sufficiently large total number of atoms, the rate equations governing the two levels are dN1 dN2 =− = N2 A21 + [N2 B21 − N1 B12 ]W (ω) dt dt (47) To inspect the implications of this result more carefully, one can consider the simple case of thermal equilibrium.

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44.Photonics Technology by John G. Webster (Editor)

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