By Kofi Yakpo
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Extra info for A Grammar of Pichi
4 VARIATION For group 1 speakers, there is no phonemic contrast between the alveolar fricative [s] and the postalveolar fricative [ʃ] (1), and this is systematically applied to all words where group 2 speakers (2) have [ʃ]. X tonal configuration (7) and prenasalisation of [j] initial words as in (8). This may lead to the formation of homophones like (9) and (10) for group 1 speakers: Group 1 (7) (8) (9) (10) lɔki tɔsti yàndá yus nyus Group 2 [lɔ́kìn] [tɔ́stìn] [njàndá] [njús] [njús] [lɔ́kì] [tɔ́stì] [jàndá] [jús] [njús] ‘be lucky’ ‘be thirsty’ ‘yonder’ ‘use’ ‘news’ There is also some variation in the use and acceptance of certain grammatical structures.
E. gɛt ‘get, mek ‘make’, gi ‘give’) serve to derive new verbal meanings. Sentence (53) features a noun-verb collocation with the generic verb mek ‘make’ and the mixed-in noun análisis ‘analysis: (53) Dɛ̀n rɔn go mek análisis. ’ [ab03ab 116] Pichi has a largely isolating morphosyntax. The morphological shape of words mostly remains unchanged. Individual words are combined in specific ways in order to express grammatical functions and relations. For example, the categories of tense, modality and aspect are expressed through phonologically distinct preverbal particles.
Chapter 14 for a detailed description of code-mixing). Pichi is also in contact with other African languages spoken in the region, amongst them Fang and Bubi, as well as other varieties of West African Creole English, in particular Nigerian and Cameroonian Pidgin. It is left to future research to uncover the impact of these languages on Pichi. 4 Variation The variation recorded in Pichi appears to be determined by a mixture of the factors age, language background and social class. Phonological variation is particularly conspicuous.
A Grammar of Pichi by Kofi Yakpo