By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current examine offers a close description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language workforce. it's spoken by means of nearly 30,000 humans, consisting in most cases of the ethnic staff of the Idaksahak who're dwelling within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted areas in western Niger. The ebook is split into 4 chapters giving a whole review: the 1st brief bankruptcy presents information regarding the heritage of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological positive factors of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it really is proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and center in addition to passive. additionally, any verb root that's of Songhay starting place is suppleted while derived and a semantic similar of Tamasheq starting place takes its position. one other non-Songhay characteristic issues inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is often current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization process used depends upon the etymology of the time period, a function paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and offers varieties of noun words. furthermore, the differing kinds of easy clauses are handled in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization concepts also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately complicated sentences offers subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions while derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
Taps r is rarely found word-initially. There is a clear preference by the speakers to add a vowel before the flap. The French word ‘radio’ is taken over as aragó. , báarar [ˈbæːɾaɾ] / barrén [baˈren] ‘child / children’. 7 Glides y and w Both are found in all environments and can be geminated. 1 Word initial clusters The word initial cluster ‘nasal’ + ‘C’ that is allowed in Mainstream Songhay is not found in Tadaksahak. The Songhay word /nda/ ‘and / with’ is pronounced ǝnda ‘and / with’ in Tadaksahak.
2 Mood-Aspect-Negation markers and unmarked perfectives When preceded by a vowel, the Mood-Aspect-Negation markers b ‘imperfective’ and m ‘subjunctive’ are lengthened. This is found, among others, when they are – as is normally the case – preceded by a pronoun clitic. 2. In positive perfective forms, where there is no overt Mood-AspectNegation marker, the initial consonant of the verb stem is lengthened under the same circumstances. (35) Initial consonant of verb lengthened [aɣa'dːǝbǝta] [nɪ'dːǝbǝta] [a'dːǝbǝta] [aɣa'jːɪbǝta] [nɪ'jːɪbǝta] [a'jːɪbǝta] aɣa₌ddǝbǝt₌a ni₌ddǝbǝt₌a a₌ddǝbǝt₌a aɣa₌yyíbǝt₌a ni₌yyíbǝt₌a a₌yyíbǝt₌a ‘I can do it’ ‘you can do it’ ‘s/he can do it’ ‘I snatched it’ ‘you snatched it’ ‘s/he snatched it’ With monosyllabic stems that carry the stress on the only syllable of the verb, this lengthening appears very strongly.
To illustrate just a short utterance said by a visiting person: (59) [iʒwarˈtʃiʤaˈdːæʔ / haˈdizaxtǝjidˈwaˈhiʤɛn] iʒwar cíj(i) a₌ddá h(e) adí z(a) aɣ₌tǝ-yidwá híj-en almost night 3s₌do thing ANA LC 1s₌FUT-return camp-PL it is almost night, so I will return home. Unless there is a short pause as in this example to mark the end of the first statement, final vowels are dropped in many places: noun + conjugated verb; discourse particle + conjugated verb. In this utterance, two lexemes are recognized only by a single consonant that is left in the realization.
A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali) by Regula Christiansen-Bolli