By Earl J. Kirkland
Preface to moment version numerous new subject matters were further, a few small mistakes were corrected and a few new references were further during this version. New issues contain aberration corrected tools, scanning confocal mode of operations, Bloch wave eigenvalue tools and parallel computing thoughts. The ?rst version - cluded a CD with laptop courses, which isn't integrated during this variation. - stead the linked courses may be on hand on an linked site (currently people.ccmr.cornell.edu/˜kirkland,but may well circulation as time is going on). I desire to thank Mick Thomas for getting ready the specimen used to list the picture in Fig.5.26 and to thank Stephen P. Meisburger for suggesting an attractive organic specimen to take advantage of in Fig.7.24. back, I ask for forgiveness upfront for leaving out a few undoubtedlyoutstanding r- erences. I additionally ask for forgiveness for the as but undiscovered mistakes that stay within the textual content. Earl J. Kirkland, December 2009 Preface to First variation photo simulation has turn into a standard software in HREM (High solution El- tron Microscopy) in recent times. in spite of the fact that, the literature at the topic is scattered between many alternative journals and convention court cases that experience happened within the final or 3 many years. it truly is dif?cult for rookies to start during this ?eld.
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6 .. u.. 7: BF-CTEM transfer function for weak amplitude objects with increasing condenser angle f3max as a function of dimensionless spatial frequency K (Scherzer defocus and aperture G max ). 0. The amplitude contrast transfer function is similar to normal light optics when the image process is incoherent f3max / G max ~ 1. 2). The objective lens is before the specimen and forms a focussed 34 CHAPTER 3. LINEAR IMAGE APPROXIMATIONS probe on the specimen. The portion of the electrons transmitted through the specimen that fallon the detector form the image brightness at one point in the image.
34) Note that W 1 and W 3 are two dimensional vector quantities. 3. 3)-1/4 and ~o = DsVCs>'. 10). Apart from the extra term with € (typically small) the oscillatory portion of the transfer functions is the same as the coherent case. The main change is the addition of a damping envelope that attenuates the transfer function at high spatial frequencies. 40) where E, I and V are the electron energy, lens currents and acceleration voltage respectively, and ~E, ~I and ~V are the lie width of their fluctuations.
The FWHM (minimum rms radius approx. 3)1/4) to about twice that of the probe with Scherzer conditions. Scherzer conditions seem to be a compromise between a small full width half maximum and large tails. Mory9o et al have also considered the optimum probe defocus for STEM imaging and microanalysis. 4. ::! 11: The normalized rms radius rrms(Cs A3 )-1/4 of the STEM probe as a function of the normalized objective aperture kmax(CsA3)1/4 and the normalized defocus 1::1/(Cs A)-1/2. Chapter 4 Sampling and the Fast Fourier Thansform Image simulation or image processing with the computer presumes that the image is somehow represented inside the computer.
Advanced Computing in Electron Microscopy by Earl J. Kirkland