By Chun - Zhu Li
Over the last decade, wide study has been carried out almost about coal as one of many world's major power assets. the present and destiny prestige of this source is a subject of substantial curiosity to the most important global economies, together with the united states, Japan, China and Europe.
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Additional resources for Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal
Christie and Mainwaring  measured the heat of wetting of water for a series of unheated and preheated Victorian brown coal samples. 9. 40[PhOH])+constant (2-8) where the constant represents the contribution of other components not included in this idealised equation. The heat generated by the cations is at the same order of magnitude as that by other polar functionalities in coal. A better way to determine the surface area is to directly quantify the amount of gas adsorbed onto the pores in coal.
G. under all magnifications when observed under a microscope . Normal Euclidean geometric measures of structure such as surface area, S, or mass density, p, will scale according to the length of the probe used to measure the structure and thus will not be constants. The exponents in structure and Properties 35 these scaling relationships are termed as fractal dimension . For a surface fractal, S = Ny-''^ (2-9) and for a mass or volume fractal, (2-10) P^POR""'"-' where r is the radius of the yardstick used to measure the surface area and R is the radius of the sphere over which the density is sampled.
In a polyelectrolyte (such as low rank coal ), large changes in pKa can occur because of the effects of neighbouring acidic groups . Thus, the distinction of -COOH and -OH groups based on the inflection points does not have a sound theoretical ground. A major advantage of this method is that the titration is carried out in an organic solvent in which coal swells and the accessibility of the functional groups is improved. 41 structure and Properties This advantage is however quite limited for brown coals due to their limited swelling in the solvent.
Advances in the Science of Victorian Brown Coal by Chun - Zhu Li