By Luigi Amaducci, Marzia Baldereschi (auth.), Robert E. Becker, Ezio Giacobini, Joyce M. Barton, Mona Brown (eds.)
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Additional info for Alzheimer Disease: From Molecular Biology to Theraphy
The strength of the correlation and that of the neurobiologic rationale is such that it is now widely accepted that the immediate cause of Alzheimer dementia is indeed loss of synapses with consequent cerebral disconnections (Hof and Morrison, 1994). A reasonable cause of synaptic loss is deficient axoplasmic flow. There is no direct evidence that axoplasmic flow is diminished in AD, but the implication is clear since the neuronal cytoskeleton is abnormal (neurofibrillary tangles, neuropil threads, and where the tau is phosphorylated without yet forming PHF), while the process is dependent on the intact cytoskeleton.
Ultimately, of course, there is such loss of synapses that their density falls below threshold, and dementia becomes clinically apparent. A relatively recent hypothesis proposes that potentially treatable inflammation plays a major role in the degenerative process (Rogers, 1992). Although lymphocytes are not present, microglia and astrocytes are common in the afflicted brain parenchyma. Activated microglia and reactive astrocytes produce cytokines and complement both of which can damage cellular components of the eNS.
J Neurochern 65:732-738. Gong C-X, Singh TJ, Grundke-Iqbal I and Iqbal K (1993): Phosphoprotein phosphatase activities in Alzheimer disease. J Neurochern 61 :921-927. Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Quinlan M, Tung Y-C, Zaidi MS and Wisniewski HM (l986a): Microtubule-associated protein tau: A component of Alzheimer paired helical filaments. J Bioi Chern 261 :6084-6089. Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Tung Y-C, Quinlan M, Wisniewski HM and Binder LI (l986b): Abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule associated protein T (tau) in Alzheimer cytoskeletal pathology.
Alzheimer Disease: From Molecular Biology to Theraphy by Luigi Amaducci, Marzia Baldereschi (auth.), Robert E. Becker, Ezio Giacobini, Joyce M. Barton, Mona Brown (eds.)