By L. M. Jackman, S. Sternhell, D. H. R. Barton and W. Doering (Auth.)
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Extra info for Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry
R. v. spectroscopic methods in which the absolute line positions are obtained directly from the instrument. r. spectroscopy. Indeed, the determination of absolute frequencies to ±1-0 Hz would require measurements to be made with an accuracy of 1 part in 108. Fortunately, relative line positions can be readily determined with an accuracy of ± 10 Hz and often with even higher precision. r. spectrometers which employ either permanent magnets or fieldfrequency locks are sufficiently stable to permit the use of pre-calibrated The Experimental Method 43 chart paper.
However, a compromise is necessary as the absolute value of the integral, and hence the accuracy with which it can be measured, decreases with increasing sweep rate. The distortion of signals by ringing (p. 35) is generally assumed not to contribute to the value of the integral. We now turn to a consideration of the relation between intensity and concentration of protons. In this connection it should be noted that we are invariably concerned with the measurement of relative intensities within the same sample, in order to determine the relative numbers of protons of various types in a molecule or the relative concentrations of components in a mixture.
In the preceding chapter we observed that, for liquids, the natural line width of a nuclear resonance signal was governed by the average lifetime of a nucleus in any one spin state. In practice, it is frequently though not always found that the homogeneity of the static magnetic field is the determining factor. Inhomogeneity of the magnetic field causes nuclei in different parts The Experimental Method 23 of the sample to experience different field strengths and, consequently, to precess at different frequencies.
Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Organic Chemistry by L. M. Jackman, S. Sternhell, D. H. R. Barton and W. Doering (Auth.)