By Etzkowitz H., Kemelgor C., Uzzi B.
This compelling paintings exposes the hidden limitations that confront girls at each juncture alongside the clinical occupation course. Its vibrant own bills supply a sobering view of the consequences those hindrances have at the own lives of girls. The authors argue that girls can achieve the clinical office through effectively coping with "social capital," these networks and relationships scientists depend upon for pro aid and new principles. this can be important interpreting for all scientists and social scientists, and for girls contemplating a systematic occupation.
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Extra info for Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology
In contrast, where boys have been encouraged to explore ‘a less predictable world . . success in inventive ad hoc solutions would be expected to benefit boys’ selfconfidence’ and the freedom to take risks. ’ However, their prior educational successes and continued positive movement through the pipeline appear to reflect the importance of women’s programs, as well as past and current mentors who created and continue to provide learning and social experiences free of gender-laden constraints. Thus, gender differences become significant when masculine and feminine are defined in terms of narrow cultural norms, some of which are peculiar to American society.
Negative stereotypes persist. The images of the role of women in science may be slightly more positive, but they have not been radically reshaped. As the role of women has shifted to meet both society’s needs and their own, some mothers and fathers relate to their daughters 32 ATHENA UNBOUND differently than in the past. They convey possibilities and expectations that transcend traditional role designations. D. in a science discipline, but credit their male advisors for sensitivity to gender inequities and their strategic assistance in helping them move forward.
This perhaps explains why virtually all of the students interviewed in the graduate school samples reported positive and successful experiences in undergraduate school. D. Ironically, once in graduate school, women often encounter a second weed-out system, a harsher, more discouraging, version of the research model they experienced as undergraduates. Their selfconfidence, so precariously acquired in college, is once again deflated. Most women who choose to major in science at university have had a positive high school experience which was one of the factors that encouraged them to continue.
Athena Unbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology by Etzkowitz H., Kemelgor C., Uzzi B.