By Olivier Hersent
In 1999-2000, VoIP (Voice-over-IP) telephony was once the most profitable buzzwords of the telecom bubble period. despite the fact that, in 2001-2003, VoIP confronted a truly difficult truth money. Now, brands and repair services are drawing on what they've got learnt from previous event in an effort to arrange to take part within the subsequent significant problem confronted through the telecommunications industry.This publication bargains a finished assessment of the problems to unravel which will set up international revenue-generating powerful "multimedia" providers. Drawing on huge learn and sensible deployment adventure in VoIP, the authors offer crucial suggestion for these looking to layout and enforce a post-bubble VoIP network.Beyond VoIP Protocols: knowing Voice expertise and Networking recommendations for IP Telephony Introduces the fundamentals of speech coding and voice qualityDemonstrates how caliber of provider might be outfitted into the community and bargains with dimensioning features, e.g. multipoint communications and the way to version name seizures.Explores the opportunity of multicast to show an IP spine into an optimized broadcast mediumIncludes amply illustrated, cutting-edge functional suggestion for formulating a whole deployment strategyA significant other quantity to "IP Telephony: Deploying VoIP Protocols", this booklet takes the reader a level deeper into how you can organize the community and take advantage of VoIP know-how to its complete power.
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Additional info for Beyond VoIP Protocols: Understanding Voice Technology and Networking Techniques for IP Telephony
F (k − 1)u(k) is 1/z · F (z) + f (−1). f (k + 1)u(k) is zF (z) − zf (0). This is the advance property. f (k + 2)u(k) is z2 F (z) − z2 f (0) − zf (1). The Z transform is a powerful tool to solve linear difference equations with constant coefficients. 3 Notation Note that the Z transform of a unit delay is ‘1/z’ and the z transform of a unit advance is ‘z’. Both expressions will appear in diagrams in the following subsections. 12. The meaning is the following: the sampled signal E is filtered by H1 (z) resulting in response signal Y .
A(z) is often called 32 BEYOND VoIP PROTOCOLS the LPC analysis filter (giving the residual signal) and H (z) = 1/A(z) the LPC synthesis filter (giving the speech signal from the residual signal). These concepts are intensively used in the low-bitrate speech coder schemes discussed in the following section. Note that we are only trying to approach the frequency spectrum of the original speech signal, not the exact time representation: this is because human hearing is not sensitive to the exact phase or time representation of a signal, but only to its frequency components.
In order to reduce the amount of information used to encode speech, one idea is to study the sensitivity of human hearing in order to remove the information related to signals that cannot be perceived. This is called ‘perceptual coding’ and applies to music as well as voice signals. The human ear is very complex, but it is possible to build a model based on critical band analysis. There are 24 to 26 critical bands that overlap bandpass filters with increasing bandwidth, ranging from 100 Hz for signals below 500 Hz to 5,000 Hz for signals at high frequency.
Beyond VoIP Protocols: Understanding Voice Technology and Networking Techniques for IP Telephony by Olivier Hersent