By Professor Hans Zähner, Werner K. Maas (auth.)
This e-book is predicated on Hans Zahner's Biologie der Antibiotica, released in 1965. there's a monstrous literature on antibiotics, overlaying chemical, phar macological, and medical elements. we have now made no try and hide this literature comprehensively. Our attempt is directed towards speak about ing antibiotics as organic brokers. they're components produced through residing cells, but they may be able to inhibit the expansion of residing cells - in lots of circumstances even the cells that produce them. we now have taken this obvious organic paradox as our element of departure and feature attempted to appear during this gentle on the construction of antibiotics and at their mode of motion. In a feeling antibiotics are akin to mutations. they're worthwhile as instruments within the examine of metabolism by way of blockading particular reactions. even as their mode of starting place and their results at the organisms that produce them are fascinating difficulties of their personal correct. now we have attempted to include either elements into our think of ations. This little booklet, designed for biology scholars and scientific stu dents, offers them with a framework into which to slot extra really good and specified info on antibiotics.
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Extra info for Biology of Antibiotics
Because this test is relatively insensitive it is not suitable for the detection of potentiation or synergism, in contrast to the test to be described next. The reason is that such effects are usually quite small, a stimulation by a factor of 3 to 10 of antibiotic activity being considered unusually high. Such increases are hardly detectable with certainty by this method because of logarithmic relationship between the zone of inhibition and the antibiotic concentration (Fig. 3-10), as already explained for the agar-diffusion test.
These two examples are mentioned here because they illustrate how control mechanisms affecting primary metabolism can secondarily affect the synthesis of antibiotics. They emphasize the importance of understanding the complete pathways in order to rationally look for increased yields of antibiotics. Turning now to cephalosporin we note that this word, like penicillin, is generic, referring to a series of closely related antibiotics. Cephalosporin C has been studied extensively. It is produced by the fungus Cephalosporium, which also produces a penicillin, penicillin N.
One of the enzymes of the pathway of methionine synthesis, ,B-cystathionase, catalyzes not only the breakdown of cystathionine but also the conversion of cysteine to pyruvate. In the presence of methionine the formation of this enzyme is repressed, resulting in the conservation of cysteine; this sparing action leads to increased penicillin synthesis. These two examples are mentioned here because they illustrate how control mechanisms affecting primary metabolism can secondarily affect the synthesis of antibiotics.
Biology of Antibiotics by Professor Hans Zähner, Werner K. Maas (auth.)