By Vaclav Smil (auth.)
ica, I thought of myself an outdated hand: while i began to review the surroundings of the North Bohemian zone in 1963, the ecosystemic adjustments and health and wellbeing results consequence ing from tremendous excessive concentrations and deposition of sulfurous and nitrogenous air pollution and particulate subject couldn't be neglected. while I lower back to the realm in 1966 to paintings there for almost 3 years as a expert in strength and environmental affairs, I got here to gain the problems of successfully controlling the matter. mountain climbing at the crest of the Ore Mountains overlooking the valley, I observed a lot destruction and degradation of coniferous plantings-but i used to be additionally many times stunned by means of the distinction of the withering tops and stunted dried-out development of spruces and firs with the marvelous beech bushes and the fit understory of shrubs and wild flora. I remember this amazing lesson of ecosystemic vulnerability and resistance whenever I learn sweeping generalizations in regards to the environmental results of acid deposition. even as, within the moment 1/2 the Nineteen Sixties, i used to be brought via a pal, an engineer operating in analytical chemistry and biochemistry, to a couple of the mysteries of enzymes; this led me to nitrogenase, some of the most very good sub stances on the planet, and to an curiosity in a variety of features of the nitrogen cycle, which used to be additional reinforced by means of my later paintings at the strength expense of crop creation, concerning inevitable comparisons among usual nitrogen fixation and Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis.
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Additional info for Carbon-Nitrogen-Sulfur: Human Interference in Grand Biospheric Cycles
According to the conference's conclusions, areas undergoing severe desertification now extend over 30 million km2 , or 23% of the earth's ice-free land. Present losses to desertification amount to about 32,000 km 2 of rangelands, 25,000 km2 of rain-fed and 1250 km2 of irrigated farmland for a total of roughly 60,000 km 2 . The maximum phytomass storage loss could be calculated by assuming the drop of standing phytomass from grassland mean (20 tlha) to desert-semidesert average (5 t/ha) in the case of rangelands and halving of the storage for cultivated land loss (from 10 to 5 t/ha).
For all remaining qualitative soil declines-waterlogging, salinization, alkalinization, and toxification-I will assume a loss of 10,000 km 2 / year but here the total phytomass decrease will be only modest. This account opens the way for assemblies of global productivity and phytomass storage estimates and for calculations of annual phytomass declines owing to various anthropogenic interventions. 2. PRODUCTIVITY AND STORAGE ESTIMATES Although scientific interest in plant productivity became quite keen and widespread during the 19th century, it was not until the 1880s that Ebermayer used his Bavarian forest and crop productivity calculations to extrapolate the global annual CO 2 consumption by plants (Lieth, 1975).
As on the average some two-thirds of the burned fossil fuels is carbon, it is obvious that annually about 5 billion t of the element enters the atmosphere from our chimneys and smokestacks. The following sections will attempt to fix this flux with the greatest possible accuracy, an effort 33 CARBON unthinkable without first appreciating the trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and difficulties in using averages to characterize fuel composition. 1. ENERGY CONSUMPTION Although the extraction of fossil fuels has evolved into generally highly mechanized activities which are also highly concentrated and closely monitored, there is still surprisingly large room for uncertainty in compiling reliable consumption statistics in other than simple output mass terms.
Carbon-Nitrogen-Sulfur: Human Interference in Grand Biospheric Cycles by Vaclav Smil (auth.)