By Mark Baker
In Case, Mark Baker develops a unified concept of ways the morphological case marking of noun words will depend on syntactic constitution. Designed to paintings good for languages of all alignment kinds - accusative, ergative, tripartite, marked nominative, or marked absolutive - this thought has been built and proven opposed to unrelated languages of every variety, and greater than twenty non-Indo-European languages are thought of extensive. whereas maintaining that case may be assigned to noun words through functionality phrases lower than contract, the speculation additionally develops intimately a moment mode of case task: so-called based case. compatible for tutorial researchers and scholars, the e-book employs formal-generative innovations but is still transparent and obtainable for a normal linguistics readership.
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Additional resources for Case: Its Principles and its Parameters
I know of two ways forward. ” If so, then it is reasonable to say that dative here is a structural case. The other is to hope that one can ﬁnd some ﬁne-grained syntactic properties which distinguish the two kinds of dative in (17) and (18b): a process of clefting, 14 The issue of structural case perhaps, or quantiﬁer ﬂoating – the sorts of syntactic phenomena known to apply to NPs but not to PPs in some languages. Then one can see how (19) behaves with respect to those tests. This second way depends both on knowing rather a lot about the syntax of the relevant language and on being a bit lucky to ﬁnd a construction that makes the crucial distinction.
25) X [Case: NOM] ! X-i if X ends in a consonant X [Case: NOM] ! X-ka (otherwise, if X ends in a vowel) (Korean) If one is not aware of this generalization about Korean, it will not be obvious that the two NPs bear the same case as assigned by the syntax in (14b). In yet other situations the conditioning factor is lexical properties of the case-bearing item, rather than its phonological properties – although this is less common in the languages in my sample than it is in prototypical IE languages.
4, I claim that genitive and ergative in languages like Shipibo and Greenlandic are really instances of (almost) the same case being assigned in both clauses and nominals, whereas genitive and accusative in a language like Finnish is an accidental homophony. This distinction is based partly on the empirical fact that total or near-total syncretism between ergative and genitive is signiﬁcantly more common than total or near-total syncretism between accusative and genitive, but also partly on the theoretical fact that my analysis of ergative case can naturally extend to possessors in complex nominals but my approach to accusative cannot extend in this way.
Case: Its Principles and its Parameters by Mark Baker