By James J. Licari
This primary publication within the fabrics and methods for Electronics purposes sequence solutions questions important to the winning layout and production of digital parts, modules, and platforms reminiscent of: - How can one guard digital assemblies from lengthy excessive humidity, excessive temperatures, salt spray or different terrestrial and house environments? - What coating varieties can be utilized to guard microelectronics in army, house, automobile, or scientific environments? - How can the chemistry of polymers be correlated to fascinating actual and electric homes? - How can a layout engineer keep away from next strength mess ups as a result of corrosion, steel migration, electric degradation, outgassing? - What are the simplest methods that production can use to masks, fresh, arrange the skin, dispense the coating, and healing the coating? - What caliber insurance and in-process exams can be utilized to guarantee reliability? - What executive or requisites can be found? - How can natural coatings be chosen to fulfill OSHA, EPA, and different rules? in addition to a dialogue of the conventional roles of coatings for moisture and environmental defense of published circuit assemblies, this booklet covers dielectric coatings that supply electric features corresponding to the low-dielectric-constant dielectrics used to manufacture multilayer interconnect substrates and high-frequency, high-speed circuits. fabrics engineers and chemists will profit vastly from a bankruptcy at the chemistry and houses of the most sorts of polymer coatings together with: Epoxies, Polyimides, Silicones, Polyurethanes, Parylene, Benzocyclobenzene and so forth. For production team of workers, there's a complete bankruptcy of over a dozen tactics for overlaying, cleansing, and floor education and a accomplished overview of over 20 procedures for the applying and curing of coatings together with fresh extrusion, meniscus, and curtain coating tools utilized in processing huge panels. the professionals and cons of every strategy are given to help the engineer in opting for the optimal procedure for his/her software. As an advantage, from his personal event, the writer discusses a few caveats that might support decrease expenditures and steer clear of disasters. ultimately, the writer discusses laws of OSHA, EPA, and different govt businesses that have ended in formula alterations to fulfill VOC and toxicity necessities. Tables of various army, advertisement, undefined, and NASA requirements are given to aid the engineer choose the correct callout.
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Additional resources for coating materials for electronic applications polymers processes reliability testing
23] The use of hardness values to establish cure endpoints applies more to slow room-temperature-curing or air-drying formulations than to the bake or heat curing types. Hardness values are not sensitive enough to detect the small changes in cure that occur on post-baking a coating after it has had an initial high-temperature cure. A second hardness test (ASTM D3363) employs the use of a series of pencils of varying hardnesses to scratch through the coating to the substrate. The method, called the pencil hardness test, is relatively simple, but somewhat subjective and also destructive in nature.
It results in reduction of insulation resistance, an increase in current leakage, and eventual catastrophic shorting. 5 on Reliability). A rapid test consists of applying a drop of water across closely spaced conductors with an applied bias of several volts. The absence or presence of metal migration can be determined visually. The same test can be used to assess the effectiveness of an overcoating to prevent or minimize metal migration. 1 shows the extent of silver migration for an unprotected silver-platinum thick-film conductor test pattern.
3 SPECIAL METAL PROTECTION Certain metals and alloys such as magnesium, tin-lead solder, aluminum, and magnesium-lithium alloy require special pretreatments and primer coatings to provide adequate protection from corrosive environments. Effective and established pretreatments consist of anodize, chemical conversion coatings, or primers prior to topcoating with an organic coating. The pretreatments and primers provide enhanced adhesion and performance of the top coating. In some benign environments, the pretreatment alone may provide sufficient protection.
coating materials for electronic applications polymers processes reliability testing by James J. Licari