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By Norma Haan

ISBN-10: 012312350X

ISBN-13: 9780123123503

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Greater generality across time and culture is m o r e likely achieved with conceptualizations of processes and structures. Piagetian investigation indicates t h a t some of these forms represent people's universal u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of t h e physical world, and possibly of t h e social world, in t h e case of moral structures (Kohlberg, 1 9 6 9 ; Piaget, 1 9 6 5 ) . T h u s we have s o m e k n o w l e d g e of t h e c o m m o n structures of cognitive d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t we are clearly less certain a b o u t the y identity or existence of social forms w h e r e b y m e n relate t o each o t h e r and t o their collectivities.

In contrast, o t h e r s p o i n t o u t t h a t it is m e r i t o r i o u s t o be able t o k n o w w h e n o n e is sated and t h e n t o be able t o s t o p (Kubie, 1 9 5 8 ) . A l t o g e t h e r t h e n , it appears t h a t conceptualizations of states are p o o r tools for t h e personologist w h o might w a n t t o m a k e his t h e o r y descriptive of p e o p l e across t i m e and situations. Summary of Arguments in Regard to Ego as State A l t h o u g h m o s t f o r m u l a t i o n s of ego represent it as a state, a r g u m e n t s were m a d e t h a t these c o n s t r u c t i o n s are faulty.

T o illustrate, in t h e c o m m o n l y used language of t h e clinic, t h e following d e n o t a t i o n s are m a d e : isolation negates t h e logically indicated connecting relationships a m o n g things; intellectualization negates t h e same relationships, b u t m o r e particularly t h e affective c o n c o m i t a n t s of cognitive p r o p o s i t i o n s ; rationalization negates t h e reality of a chain of causal events; d o u b t negates t h e person's necessities and capacities t o m a k e decisions; projection negates t h e person's o w n evaluation of himself; regression negates t h e reality of t h e person's age and t i m e within his o w n life s p a n ; denial negates t h e p e r c e p t u a l reality of t h e p e r s o n ' s present circumstances; displacement negates t h e object or t h e situation of his affective reactions; reaction f o r m a t i o n negates his socially uncivil r e a c t i o n s ; and repression negates t h e reality of his affective reactions by erasing their cognitive representations.

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Coping and Defending. Processes of Self-Environment Organization by Norma Haan

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