By Henry Petroski
Advent -- Paconius and the pedestal for Apollo : a paradigm of mistakes in conceptual layout -- Vitruvius's auger and Galileo's bones : paradigms of limits to measurement in layout -- Galileo and the marble column : a paradigm of a layout switch for the more serious -- Galileo's affirmation of a fake speculation : a paradigm of logical blunders in layout -- The layout and cave in of the Dee Bridge : a paradigm of luck protecting mistakes -- The Britannia tubular bridge : a paradigm of tunnel imaginative and prescient in layout -- Failure as a resource of engineering judgment : John Roebling as a paradigmatic fashion designer -- The layout weather for the Tacoma Narrows Bridge : a paradigm of the selective use of heritage -- old bridge mess ups and caveats for destiny designs -- end
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Additional resources for Design paradigms: case histories of errors and judgment in engineering
2. 10. The decomposed matrix is shown in Figure 2. 11. 1. 2. / C7 Cg s = r( 1- cos 0 ) /=rld C9 1 1 1 -=-+R is RI' B=/,,+/;-l • 0 I C IO do -d,-2d r- .. " Cs D=Bd Cli Rr = a\de - dcos f3)/2de C6 ro + r, -.! = J;d/(2/;-1) r B 10 li D ~I ro rl Pe 5 e R Rx Ry r ~ C, C, C, C. Cs C. C, C. c. C, o C l1 C'2L-____________________________________________________ Figure 2. JO. Ball Bearing Design Constraint-Parameter Incidence Matrix ~ Chapter 2 30 c, c. c, sed. do d, i3 Pd ro r, 10 Ii R, R r D p. d Il, R, B C 11 C2 C6 c.
Problem decomposition is divided into requirements de composition, constraint-parameter decomposition, and decomposition-based design optimization. 1 Requirements Decomposition Requirements represent an abstraction of the design problem, starting with the overall requirement (general demand) and ending with the specific requirements (specific demands). The ability to meet a requirement is given by a design function. 9), where specific requirements are mapped into specific functions. 9. 2 Constraint Parameter Decomposition The parameters describe the features (quantitative or qualitative data) of the product, while the constraints defi ne the ranges of values assigned to parameters that are defined by product requirements.
They are implemented by adaptive modules that allow for unpredictable circumstances. Customer-Specific Functions These are functions that are not provided by the modular system, and they are implemented by non-modules which must be designed individually. If they are used, the result is a mixed system that combines modules and non-modules. 2 Product Modularity Representation Product modularity can be represented based on the types of combinations between the modules. Combinations between modules are analyzed based on the types of interactions between the different modules within a product.
Design paradigms: case histories of errors and judgment in engineering by Henry Petroski