By Francois Ruf, Götz Schroth
The monoculture structures which have been inspired through governments because the Nineteen Sixties have resulted in significant socio-economic and environmental crises. Now the diversification of tree crop platforms is advancing through the tropics. Why and whilst does diversification ensue? What different types of farmers diversify? What stumbling blocks have they got to beat, and the way do private and non-private guidelines intervene during this strategy? How do land use platforms and landscapes evolve due to this diversification? based on the authors of this quantity, diversification is definitely a reaction to marketplace dangers, but in addition to the depletion of environmental assets. Ecological alterations similar to declining soil fertility and extending strain from pests, ailments and weeds accentuate on the finish of monoculture cycles, using crop switch and diversification of farming structures. via 15 case reports from Africa, Latin the United States, Asia and the Pacific, the authors supply us with in-depth insights into the financial system and ecology of relatives agriculture and its fresh developments.
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Additional info for Economics and Ecology of Diversification: The Case of Tropical Tree Crops
For example, in Bahia, Brazil, many timber trees in cocoa farms were sold illegally to offset the loss of income during the cocoa crisis of the 1990s (Alger and Caldas 1996). In most cases, however, remnant forest trees in tree crop farms are rarely managed sustainably for continuous production and revenue. However, in Costa Rica and Guatemala, as in other countries in Central America, farmers have started diversifying their coffee and cocoa farms by planting new timber trees (Chap. 13). And yet, the sale of timber is forbidden by governments in many countries, thus denying any rights to the value of the wood to farmers.
The witches’ broom disease of cocoa, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, was brought in the 1980s from the Amazon to the cocoa-growing region of southern Bahia. This region was then dependent on a monoculture of cocoa with high susceptibility to the disease, even if these cocoa trees were grown under a highly diversiﬁed canopy of forest trees (Schroth et al. 2011). The ensuing cocoa crisis resulted in a diversiﬁcation into cultivation of Robusta coffee and rubber. However, this diversiﬁcation did not result in a conversion; the southern Bahia region today remains dependent on cocoa.
The ensuing cocoa crisis resulted in a diversiﬁcation into cultivation of Robusta coffee and rubber. However, this diversiﬁcation did not result in a conversion; the southern Bahia region today remains dependent on cocoa. A less perceptible environmental change resulting from the progressive replacement of forests by farms at a regional scale is one of a drier microclimate. This can exacerbate the difﬁculties of replanting crops such as cocoa which have high humidity requirements. Indeed, farmers around the world agree that rainfall patterns have changed after years of deforestation (Léonard and Oswald 1996; Brou 2005).
Economics and Ecology of Diversification: The Case of Tropical Tree Crops by Francois Ruf, Götz Schroth