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By C. West Churchman, None

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Thus, if one thing not stronger than another (p doesn't imply r) then something of equal strength or weaker than the former (something p implies) is not stronger than the latter (does not imply r) Or, if one thing is not weaker than another, then something of equal strength or stronger than the former is not weaker than the is , . latter. The results may be manner analogous to the For suppose we have two premises. generalized in a generalization of Principle 2. : ELEMENTS OF LOGIC 30 q, which imply r; then we may replace p or q (or both) by stronger forms, or we may replace r by a weaker form, and p and the resulting implication is That valid.

THE LOGIC OF PROPOSITIONS 25 may also be applied in the case where the implinot valid. " In Principle 2b. then q^ ("q follows: "If a 2, as does not follow that he is man is not honest general, then: If the is by Principle it statement p does not imply the statement does not imply p' ("p is false") q, false") its principles. That what the old principles which express is, it finds new principles generalization of Principle 2 expressed and more as well. The illustration: Suppose you were can best be seen by means of an presenting a debate in which you had four points admittedly substantiating your argument.

Implication is the principal relation of logic or the science of the laws of reasoning. When we say that a certain statement p "implies" another statement q, we mean that there is a relation between the former and the latter, a relation which is such that whenever the former is true, the latter is true also. " The word "implies," or one of its synonyms, is used constantly, but usually subconsciously. " That is, one method of denying that "p implies ^" is true consists in showing that there are cases where p is true and q is not true.

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Elements of Logic and Formal Science by C. West Churchman, None


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