By Esam N. Khalil
A part of the "Linguistics this day" sequence which gives a platform for unique monograph stories into synchronic linguistics, this paintings examines the topic of empty different types in sentence processing. It covers such issues because the positions of ECs within the thought and the constitution of German clauses.
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Extra info for Empty Categories in Sentence Processing
What did James want wh-trace for Christmas? Josh hoped PRO to run 100m in less than 10 seconds. pro nataka wali na kuku. pres rice and chicken We shall have nothing to say about other empty elements which are only optionally phonetically null or which represent only heads, since the theory relating to them has been much less well developed. 2). This has implications: their nature is very immediately determined by the grammar and much less by external factors; they can be thought of as the minimal element required for convergence, which makes them an interesting keyhole onto the requirements of the grammar.
Travis’s (25c,d) shows no reason to exclude these sentence forms. On these grounds we reject the suggestion that German has a head-initial IP (see also arguments advanced by Kathol (1990) and Schwartz & Vikner (1989)). Kathol (1990) suggests that all German clauses are IPs, and that only complementizers appear in CP, arguing that the verbs and complementizers do not form a natural class, and so cannot alternate in the head C position. He claims that coordination facts refute the CP analysis of clauses: for example he says that (26) and (27) are marginal and that this excludes the possibility that both clauses with complementizers and V2 clauses could be CPs.
We would argue that it is this use of und that we see in (29b). Haider (1993) argues that there is no evidence of an independent IP and VP in German and that the two categories can be subsumed into one. This gives the structure as in (30). ) (30) spec F´ F IP/VP spec I´/V´ XP I/V We admit that it is diﬃcult to advance any ﬁrm proof of an IP separate from the VP using German data (but see Featherston 2000 for some recent experimental work), but note that there is for the same reasons no evidence against it either.
Empty Categories in Sentence Processing by Esam N. Khalil