Download e-book for iPad: English Grammar for Today: A new introduction by Geoffrey Leech, Margaret Deuchar, Robert Hoogenraad

By Geoffrey Leech, Margaret Deuchar, Robert Hoogenraad

ISBN-10: 0333306449

ISBN-13: 9780333306444

ISBN-10: 1349168785

ISBN-13: 9781349168781

English Grammar for at the present time seeks to advertise the research of grammar within the English curriculum. It takes a brand new strategy which supplies weight not just to analytical talents but additionally to the mixing of English grammar with different linguistic abilities similar to composition and comprehension.

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Extra resources for English Grammar for Today: A new introduction

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To explain how sentences are constructed, it is not enough to identify constituents such as dauses, phrases and words; we also need to identify these as belonging to various classes. 1 Form classes As we have seen, words are divided into word classes such as noun (N), verb (V), adjective (Aj), adverb (Av). Similarly, phrase!! are sub·divided into noun phrase (NP), verb phrase (VP), adjective pholse (AjP), adverb phrase (AvP): genitive phrase (GP) and prepositionaI'phrase (PP). 5). For the moment, notice that one reason why we need to identify such classes is to explain the order in which elements of the sentence occur.

G. -er (singer), -ist (hypnotist), -ism (fascism), - {a} {t}ion (station, caution) -ity (divinity), -hood (falsehood), -ence (preference), -ness(goodness). g. longer is an Aj, linger is a V. (ii) Most nouns can change their form from SINGULAR to PLURAL by adding -s or -es (goal, goals; dress, dresses) or by some other change of form (wo man, women; foot, feet; bacillus, bacilli). Such nouns are count nouns, as opposed to mass nouns (see (i) below). (c) MEANING: Nouns typica11y refer to physical phenomena: people, objects, places, substances, etc.

Also bear in mind that, because grammatical categories have fuzzy edges, one test is rarely enough; we often have to rely on a number of different tests in deciding which analysis is the correct or best one. Nevertheless, the tests are already useful, and this is particularly evident in recognising types of phrase. Each phrase dass has a 'keyword' which is essential to it, and which provides it with a name. For example, in (12) the 'keywords' of the phrases are as follows: (2) noun verb ~ ~ adjective ~ adverb ~ [(Aunt Gladys) (has seemed) (rather grumpy) (just recently)] noun phrase verb phrase adjective phrase adverb phrase And we can see that these words are essential to the structure, in that if we reduce the sentence to a minimum by subtraction or substitution, we end up with them alone: 02a) [(Gladys) (seemed) (grumpy) (recently)].

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English Grammar for Today: A new introduction by Geoffrey Leech, Margaret Deuchar, Robert Hoogenraad

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