By J. Font-Guzmán
Drawing from in-depth interviews with a bunch of Puerto Ricans who asked a certificates of Puerto Rican citizenship, criminal and old records, and legit studies now not publicly obtainable, Jacqueline Font-Guzmán stocks how a few Puerto Ricans build and adventure their citizenship and nationwide identification on the margins of the united states kingdom.
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Extra resources for Experiencing Puerto Rican Citizenship and Cultural Nationalism
Senator Foraker stated: We did not want to treat our own as aliens, and we do not propose to have any subjects. ” In adopting the term “citizens” we did not understand, however, that we were giving 30 M Puerto Rican Citizenship and Cultural Nationalism to those people any rights that the American people do not want them to have. “Citizens” is a word that indicates according to Story’s work on the Constitution of the United States, allegiance on the one hand and protection on the other (33 Cong.
By 1912, Congress was debating the Jones project, which was eventually approved as the Jones Act on March 2, 1917. Between 1912 and 1917 there was intense political debate in the US Congress regarding granting US citizenship to Puerto Ricans and allowing them more self-government. The ongoing debate was intense as evidenced in an open letter on August 25, 1913, from then Speaker of the House of Delegates of Puerto Rico, José De Diego, to US Senator Miles Poindexter (De Diego 1913, 3–11). Therein, De Diego clearly expressed that he would reject a US citizenship that would not give the People of Puerto Rico equal rights or keep Puerto Rico in a perpetual colony or state of dependency with the United States (De Diego 1913, 3–11).
In 1921 when a graduating student from Central High School in San Juan waved a Puerto Rican flag and cheered in favor of independence during the graduation ceremonial acts, Commissioner Miller ordered the police to “remove the f lag of the enemy” (Negrón de Montilla 1990, 186). Under the Jones Act, political repression was intensified. On October 24, 1935, during what is known as la Masacre de Río Piedras (the Río Piedras Massacre), policemen under the orders of Cornel E. 16 This car was intercepted by the police, and when it was on its way to the police headquarters, there was a struggle: a shot was fired, a policeman fell, and the police in the car behind opened fire killing four of the students in the lead car (Dolores Hernández 1997; see also, Comisión de Derechos Civiles 1990, 16–17 and Gallisá 2010, 55).
Experiencing Puerto Rican Citizenship and Cultural Nationalism by J. Font-Guzmán