By Donald T. Campbell, Julian Stanley
A survey drawn from social-science study which offers with correlational, ex put up facto, actual experimental, and quasi-experimental designs and makes methodological strategies. Bibliogs.
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Extra resources for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research
The interaction effect in 2d is most clearly of this order. , if one averages the values of all three Bs for each A, a horizontal line results). But when B is held at level l, increases in A have a decremental effect, whereas when B is held at level 3, A has an incremental effect. Note that had the experimenter varied A only and held B constant at level 1, the re sults, while internally valid, would have led to erroneous generalizations for B2 and Ba• The multiple-factorial feature of the design has thus led to valuable explorations of the generalizability or external validity of any summary statement about the main effect of A.
Of course, some 20 of them example, ordinarily requires access to high� cannot conveniently be fitted into the labora� speed computers. , so a redefi known : using the traditional statistics is too nition of the universe has taken place im conservative, too inclined to say "no effect plicitly. " If we judge our publications to be 100, from the point. , claims ness, what he has gained is the ability to for effects that won't hold up upon cross� generalize with statistical confidence to the validation (this is certainly the case for ex 1961 class of Educational Psychology A at perimental and social psychology, if not as State Teachers.
Further, this formidable list of sources of invalidity might, with even more likeli hood, reduce willingness to undertake quasi experimental designs, designs in which from the very outset it can be seen that full experi mental control is lacking. Such an effect would be the opposite of what is intended. From the standpoint of the final interpre tation of an experiment and the attempt to fit it into the developing science, every experi ment is imperfect. What a check list of validity criteria can do is to make an experi menter more aware of the residual imper fections in his design so that on the relevant points he can be aware of competing inter pretations of his data.
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research by Donald T. Campbell, Julian Stanley