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Extra info for External Human Events - Site Eval for Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA NS-G-3.1)
10. Ship collision may constitute a particular hazard to the water intake structures of a nuclear power plant. 11. If the ship collision probability is found to be greater than the SPL, a detailed analysis should be conducted to assess the consequences of such an impact. In such an analysis, the simulation of uncontrolled drifting of ships and recreational boats (especially sailing vessels) should be conducted, according to the direction of dominant winds and currents. The collision of large ships in normal cruising can usually be screened out by the implementation of administrative measures and safeguards.
The design basis parameters for the direct impact of an aircraft on the plant’s structures may be defined to different levels of detail depending on the level necessary for the final evaluation. This will depend on the importance of this event for the design of the specific plant and for the degree of conservatism assumed in the entire design process. Two examples are as follows: — Distribution of mass and stiffness along the aircraft concerned (one or more), nose shape, area of impact, velocity and angle of incidence — when the structural evaluation includes detailed local analyses of the potential for structural failure due to shearing and bending forces, for spalling and scabbing of concrete within the structures, and for perforation of the structures.
29. For evaluating the generation of a drifting cloud of hazardous gases, vapours or aerosols and its interaction with items important to safety, distinctions should be drawn between the following: — subcooled liquefied gases; and — gases liquefied by pressure and non-condensable compressed gases. Gases in group (1) are kept, generally, in insulated containers at very low temperatures, while gases in group (2) are maintained at ambient temperatures. 30. Usually the release of a subcooled liquefied gas will occur as a steady leak over a considerable period of time (at a given leak rate), but the possibility of an effectively instantaneous release (a total sudden release) should also be considered, depending on the following conditions associated with the release: — the type of storage container and its associated piping; — the maximum size of the opening from which the material may leak; 33 — the maximum amount of material that may be involved; — the relevant circumstances and mode of failure of the container.
External Human Events - Site Eval for Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA NS-G-3.1)