By Sandra Walklate
The 1st variation of this booklet supplied a lucid and hugely acclaimed advent to gender matters in crime and legal justice, important to any figuring out of crime and felony justice coverage and perform. This moment variation has been up-to-date to take complete account of modern advancements, rather within the components of policing, crime prevention, restorative justice and laws in terms of sexual offenses and the character and effect of crime on girls — particularly the Sexual Offences Act 2003. The ebook is split into 3 major sections. the 1st considers other ways of theorizing approximately gender and the relative effect of this on pondering crime and legal victimization; the second one considers many of the facts on the subject of people’s gendered reports of crime and felony victimization; and the 3rd considers how these operating in the felony justice procedure, and the guidelines which are installed position, paintings to maintain or switch these reviews of crime and felony victimization when it comes to gender.
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Additional info for Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Second Edition
Influenced by functionalist sociology, these propositions largely directed attention to such factors as: how much time an individual spent outside their home, what activities they were engaged in, how they moved about, etc. This way of thinking about the risk of criminal victimisation, despite the definitional difficulties associated with the concept itself (for a summary, see Walklate, 1989, Chapter 1), has fed significantly into the crime survey business (see Chapter 3) and has also contributed towards a reorientation of the crime-prevention industry from crime prevention to victimisation prevention already commented on above.
These processes do not surface in expressions directly related to evolutionism within victimology but they do surface as having been influenced by the cultural legacy emanating from those ideas. For example, if we examine Von Hentig’s typology of victim proneness we find that women (children, the elderly, people from ethnic minorities) feature as being particularly victim-prone. If we examine the concept of victim precipitation, it 36 Criminology, victimology and feminism presumes some legal notion of reasonable behaviour which, when examined carefully, frequently means reasonable, white, male, entrepreneurial behaviour (Naffine, 1990).
It reflects a desire to establish a universal explanation of crime and, thereby, a solution to the crime problem. This desire is clearly derived from the drive to emulate the natural sciences (hence Comte’s first term for sociology, ‘social physics’), and from the desire to exert a positive influence (read ‘control’) over the processes of social change. Thus the search for a universal, all-embracing explanation of crime and criminal behaviour has dogged much criminological endeavour. It is within these deep-rooted conceptions of science – science as the search for universality and control – that we catch our first glimpses of gender-blindness since these assumptions reveal much about what there is to be known and by whom.
Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice: Second Edition by Sandra Walklate