By Benjamin Arnold
It is a thorough and unique learn of German knighthood as a category in its medieval heyday. Arnold attracts on a wealthy array of descriptive element from the lives of person knights, their households, and diverse teams to envision knightly customs and practices, the effect of knighthood within the political international of the German Empire, and the curious prestige of such a lot knights as instantaneously noble and unfree. those unfree knights, argues Arnold, have been particularly specialist warriors in an empire the place violence for political ends prevailed--a harsh fact that dictated the constitution and improvement in their type.
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Additional info for German Knighthood 1050-1300 (Oxford University Press Academic Monograph Reprints)
At the same time, Alcuin established scriptoria for the copying of manuscripts, and he is credited for developing the Carolingian minuscule, a clear and standard cursive script that allowed for greater speed in writing. As a theologian, aside from his treatise against Adoptionism, Alcuin wrote nine scriptural commentaries and a collection of Latin sermons for priests to use. He wrote a very influential missal, and his modification of the Roman liturgy is the direct antecedent of the form in use in the Roman church to this day.
Emboldened by this military achievement and prompted by his own rash pride, Arthur proceeds to besiege the duke of Lorraine, wins this battle, and continues into Italy conquering towns along the way. The Romans finally offer Arthur the imperial crown and at this pinnacle of success, Arthur dreams of Lady Fortune who, with a turn of her wheel, dashes him down. This dream also proves prophetic: The next morning Arthur learns that Mordrede has taken both crown and queen, and Arthur returns to England where Gawayn’s knights are outnumbered and Gawayn himself is killed in a battle scene of uncommon realism.
Alfred the Great and His England. London: Collins, 1957. Sturdy, David. Alfred the Great. London: Constable, 1995. al-Ghaz al¯ ¯ ı (Algazali, Ab¯u H¯amid Muhammad ib Muhammad al’Ghaz¯al¯ı) (1058–1111) Some 400 titles are attributed to the influential Muslim theologian, philosopher, legalist, and mystic al-Ghaz¯al¯ı. While many of these are false attributions made to him because of his reputation, there is no doubt he was extremely prolific in a variety of genres. His most important works are his spiritual autobiography The Deliverance from Errord (Al’Munqidh min al-Dal¯al), his theological work reconciling mysticism with orthodox Islam called The Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya’ ‘Ulu¯ m al-D¯ın), and his refutation of the Aristotelian influence so prevalent in Islamic philosophy in the 11th century, The Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tah¯afut al-Fal¯asifah).
German Knighthood 1050-1300 (Oxford University Press Academic Monograph Reprints) by Benjamin Arnold