By Joint ACI-ASCE Comm 421
In the course of an earthquake, the unbalanced moments transferred at flat plate-column connections can produce major shear stresses that raise the vulnerability of those connections to brittle punching shear failure. This consultant offers options for designing flat plate-column connections with adequate ductility to resist lateral waft with out punching shear failure or lack of second move ability. This advisor treats bolstered concrete flat plates without or with post-tensioning.
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Extra resources for Guide to Seismic design of punching shear reinforcement in flat plates
36 Adequate reinforcement should be provided to resist shrinkage and thermal stresses in the beam resulting from the restraint imposed by the sheet wall and the soil. The capping should also be provided with lateral reinforcement above the sheet piles, where troughed steel piles are used and where vertical loads are to be resisted: the transfer of vertical loads to the sheet piles should be checked. Links should be provided to each part of the capping section: this may require passing bars through holes in the piles or welding them to the piles.
The reduction of tension in the top tie rod due to the introduction of the lower tie rod is equal to the reaction of the simple span mentioned above with a single point load equal to the tension in the lower tie rod. Allowance should be made for the increased tension in both tie rods if they are inclined. Once T1 and T2 are determined, the depth of penetration can be revised by statics; however, it is wise to keep in mind that the above methods are only approximate. It is recommended that any reduction factor be omitted if a wall has two or more tiers of tie rods, and that the tie rod loads calculated be increased by 15 %.
A-frames are often used instead of deadman anchorages where the width of ground behind the wall is limited, where poor ground exists or where the existing ground level is low. They have the advantage over cantilever anchorages in that the loads are resisted by axial forces in the piles rather than in bending, and only very small forward movement of the anchor is experienced. The piles should, if possible, be positioned behind the active soil wedge to allow frictional resistance to be developed along the full length of the pile and to avoid loading the piles by the active soil wedge.
Guide to Seismic design of punching shear reinforcement in flat plates by Joint ACI-ASCE Comm 421