By Jerome J. Cuomo, Stephen M. Rossnagel, Harold R. Kaufman
Offers with ion beam processing for easy sputter etching of samples, sputter deposition of skinny movies, the synthesis of fabric in skinny movie shape, and the amendment of the homes of skinny motion pictures.
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Extra resources for Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology - Principles, Deposition, Film Modification and Synthesis
To show this, substitute *rd£/4 for A b in Eq. ) Assuming the same voltages are used, then, if the ion optics of a large ion source are to have a larger ion-current capacity than those of an ion source that is smaller, but otherwise similar, the ratio d b /l g must be larger for the large ion source. If this ratio is not larger, the beam current of the large source will be no greater than the small one at the same voltages, regardless of the difference in physical size. Present ion sources that are large and also have correspondingly large beam currents all use dished molybdenum grids to achieve a large value of d b /l g .
Plasma densities in these tools are typically on the order of 1010 cm 3 , so that the ion to neutral ratio is about 10~6-10"4. The energy of ions impinging onto the substrate is dependent upon the operating pressure, excitation frequency, excitation voltage, and gas species, but can achieve an appreciable fraction of the peak rf voltage. Ion energies of several hundred eV are not uncommon. More recently, magnetically-active plasmas have received much interest. For example magnetron systems can operate at pressures down to a few miilitorr, with plasma densities as high as 1011 cm 3 - corresponding to an ion-to-neutral ratio of about 10~4-10~2 .
Typically two magnets surround the ECR plasma region. This allows some independence in setting the field strength to the resonance value, and tailoring the field lines and gradient for optimum plasma generation and extraction. Gas may be introduced either into the source directly, downstream near the specimen, or both. For many applications, the microwave applicator, source chamber, and possibly the process chamber must be water-cooled, since microwave power, plasma species, and excited neutrals can all cause considerable heating.
Handbook of Ion Beam Processing Technology - Principles, Deposition, Film Modification and Synthesis by Jerome J. Cuomo, Stephen M. Rossnagel, Harold R. Kaufman