By Karl J. Puttlitz
A whole walk-through of the conversion from common lead–tin to lead-free solder microelectronic assemblies for low-end and high-end purposes, this well timed reference analyzes the future health hazards linked to lead; estimates the environmental advantages of utilizing lead-free substitutes in microelectronics; summarizes new laws, laws, and market tendencies affecting the undefined; and descriptions adjustments and demanding situations at the fabrics, gear, and approach degrees for manufacture of lead-free microelectronics.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Lead-Free Solder Technology for Microelectronic Assemblies
Accordingly, eutectic or near-eutectic composition alloys are desired to prevent this condition. 5. Wettability Solder wettability is the capability of an alloy in the molten state to spread over the solid surface of another metal, usually metallization on a terminal pad. It is the precursor of ‘‘solderability,’’ which describes the solder’s ability to form a solder joint on a PCB. Joint formation includes such aspects as ﬁllet formation between a vertical surface and a horizontal surface, and capillary ﬂow of the solder as required to ﬁll holes or gaps.
For example, ﬂip chip solder bumps (97Pb–3Sn, mpf322jC) are reﬂowed to ceramic BGA chip carriers, which, in turn, are attached to cards with eutectic Sn–Pb (mp=183jC). The ﬂip-chip solder bumps do not become molten during the component-to-card attachment step.
If the ﬂux is exposed to moderate temperatures for long periods or excessive temperatures for even short periods, it forms a hardened mass of charred residue that prevents soldering and is not protective, allowing the surfaces to be reoxidized. Accordingly, many ﬂuxes utilized for eutectic Sn–Pb solder would not be eﬀective with lead-free alloys whose melting temperatures are substantially higher than eutectic Sn–Pb, causing poor wetting and leading to poor manufacturing yields . For reﬂow processes, a ﬂux should be compatible with peak temperatures above the liquidus temperature up to 250jC, whereas for wave soldering, a suitable ﬂux for a lead-free solder must be capable of withstanding a 130jC preheat and a 280jC temperature in contact with the solder in the molten state for a period of approximately 3 sec .
Handbook of Lead-Free Solder Technology for Microelectronic Assemblies by Karl J. Puttlitz