By Sarah E. Blackwell
Implicatures in Discourse examines Spanish conversations and oral narratives so as to search help for a realistic concept of anaphora. Blackwell argues that using anaphoric expressions can be thought of conversational implicatures that provide upward push to inferences of coreference and non-coreference. Her research indicates how audio system abide by way of Levinson's 'neo-Gricean' rules of volume, Informativeness, and demeanour, yet that grammatical, semantic, cognitive, and pragmatic constraints engage with the neo-Gricean rules, influencing anaphora use and interpretation. The examine additionally finds how mutual wisdom, together with familiarity with Spanish social and cultural norms, allows interlocutors to take advantage of and understand minimum referring expressions, which cultural outsiders will not be capable of interpret. whereas drawing on previous paintings on anaphora and reference, this e-book deals a clean examine discourse anaphora, and sheds gentle at the ways that audio system felicitously use and interpret anaphoric expressions in numerous communicative contexts.
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Additional info for Implicatures in Discourse: The Case of Spanish NP Anaphora
As conversational or discourse phenomena rather than sentence-level phenomena. 3 Clashes, revisions, and reductions in the original Gricean maxims Levinson (1987a, b, 1991, 2000), Geluykens (1994), and Huang (1991, 1994, 2000a, b) propose that the two Gricean maxims relating directly to the linguistic realization of referential elements in discourse, and speciªcally anaphoric expressions, are those of Quantity and Manner. Geluykens (1994) points out, however, that both of these maxims give con¶icting instructions to the speaker.
John turned the switch and the man started the motor. g. third person, singular, masculine), while contrasting only on the level of markedness of linguistic form. And, although the use of the man in (39b) is semantically general and “ripe for Ienrichment” (Levinson 1987a: 102), the hearer infers non-coreference by virtue of the M-principle, since there are alternative unmarked forms, including he and zero, which the speaker could have used to convey coreference. Furthermore, the M-principle explicitly instructs the speaker not to use a prolix or marked form without reason, and there is no apparent reason for using the marked form in (39b) if coreference is intended.
Adherence to the ªrst sub-maxim of Quantity results in the pragmatic inference that the statement uttered is the informationally strongest expression the speaker could make in a given situation. We can see how this maxim operates in the following example, where by uttering the sentence: (15) Ø Llevo cinco años viviendoen Madrid. ’ the speaker implicates is that s/he has lived in Madrid for only ªve years but no more than ªve. , Llevo veinte años viviendo en Madrid — ‘I’ve been living in Madrid for twenty years’), the listener infers that the interpretation associated with the use of this stronger expression does not hold.
Implicatures in Discourse: The Case of Spanish NP Anaphora by Sarah E. Blackwell