New PDF release: Instructor's Manual to Accompany: Operating System Concepts

By Abraham Silberschatz

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12 Demonstrate that monitors and semaphores are equivalent insofar as they can be used to implement the same types of synchronization problems. wait(); value--; } } A monitor could be implemented using a semaphore in the following manner. Each condition variable is represented by a queue of threads waiting for the condition. Each thread has a semaphore associated with its queue entry. When a thread performs a wait operation, it creates a new semaphore (initialized to zero), appends the semaphore to the queue associated with the condition variable, and performs a blocking semaphore decrement operation on the newly created semaphore.

It could use a large fraction of its assigned quantum, but relinquish the CPU before the end of the quantum, thereby increasing the priority associated with the process. 9 Consider a preemptive priority scheduling algorithm based on dynamically changing priorities. Larger priority numbers imply higher priority. When a process is waiting for the CPU (in the ready queue, but not running), its priority changes at a rate ␣; when it is running, its priority changes at a rate ␤. All processes are given a priority of 0 when they enter the ready queue.

Such a scheduling policy could however starve long-running tasks and thereby increase their waiting time. • I/O device utilization and CPU utilization: CPU utilization is maximized by running long-running CPU-bound tasks without performing context switches. I/O device utilization is maximized by scheduling I/O-bound jobs as soon as they become ready to run, thereby incurring the overheads of context switches. 3 Consider the exponential average formula used to predict the length of the next CPU burst.

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Instructor's Manual to Accompany: Operating System Concepts by Abraham Silberschatz


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