By David Odden
This obtainable textbook offers a transparent and useful creation to phonology, the examine of sound styles in language. Designed for undergraduates with just a uncomplicated wisdom of linguistics, it logically develops the thoughts of phonological research. Over sixty graded routines motivate scholars to make their very own analyses of phonological styles and approaches, in line with huge information and challenge units from a number of languages.
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Additional info for Introducing Phonology (Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics)
1 Vowels: their symbols and properties Conventionally, the first division in speech sounds is made between vowels and consonants. Symbols for vowels will be considered first, because there are fewer vowels than consonants. American English has a fairly rich vowel inventory, so we can illustrate most of the vowel symbols with English words. (1) Symbol i ι or I e ε a ɔ o υ or U u ə English equivalent beat [biyt] bit [bιt] bait [beyt] bet [bεt] bat [b t] cot [kat] caught [kɔt] coat [kowt] could [kυd] cooed [kuwd] cud [k d] (unstressed vowel in) ‘array’ [əréy] The glides y and w in the transcription of tense vowels in English reflect the phonetic diphthongal quality of these vowels, which is especially evident when one compares the pronunciation of English say and Spanish se.
It is generally agreed that in English, the words spring, sixths and Mike have one syllable, and osprey, happy and allow have two. The syllable is made up of a contiguous sequence of segments, so the main issue regarding syllables is where the syllable begins and ends. ]. ]. However, in dealing with words having certain clusters of consonants or certain stress patterns, the question becomes more complicated. ] as transcriptions for the word happy. Determining syllable boundaries is thus not trivial.
In order to make a pharyngeal nasal, it would be necessary to make a complete constriction at the pharynx. But since the pharynx lies below the velum, no air can flow through the nasal passages if the pharynx is totally constricted. e. the consonant [ʕ would not be a physical impossibility, since that consonant does not require complete constriction of the pharynx. In other cases, the gap indicates that no such sound has been found, but there is no immutable physical reason for such a sound not to exist.
Introducing Phonology (Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics) by David Odden