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By Lawrence R.J.

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2000). The lowest degree of tenderness in duck breast muscle is likely to be related to an increase in fibre size, as already demonstrated in beef by Crouse et al. (1991). , 1998a), maximum flavour being found during the sexual maturation of broilers (Fig. , 1981a,b). , 2000; Zanusso, 2002) could partly account for these observations. , 1983). , 2002). Obviously, the sensory quality of meat is closely related to bird age at slaughter. Commercial selection for growth rate has led to birds being less mature, with meat that is generally more tender and juicy, but of a less intense flavour.

There are also high penalties in some countries for contravention of the growing body of legislation on matters to do with animal welfare and environmental protection. Control systems are being developed and applied `from farm to fork' and product traceability to the point of origin on the farm has become a feature, along with `early warning' and product recall arrangements. Traceability is defined in the EU General Food Law Regulation (178/2002/ EC) as `the ability to trace and follow a food, feed, food producing animal or Meat quality and consumer requirements 15 substance intended to be or likely to be incorporated into a food or feed, through all stages of production, processing and distribution'.

Soya is an essential ingredient in poultry feed and large amounts need to be imported. With the supply of non-GM soya becoming increasingly scarce at present, a premium is charged which is having an adverse effect on the competitiveness of European poultry producers. This situation contrasts with that in the USA, where GM crops are said to be welcomed by farmers and consumers alike (but see Chapter 6). At present, more than 60% of food products in US supermarkets contain GM ingredients (Ahmed, 2002).

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Introduction to topological quantum field theory by Lawrence R.J.

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