By Gabriele Diewald, Elena Smirnova
The e-book deals the 1st choice of papers which explicitly care for the linguistic attention of evidentiality in eu languages. The contributions summarize appropriate prior study and enhance new views at the view of evidentiality. The scope of the papers levels from huge overviews on areal and typological matters to in-depth reports of evidential expressions specifically languages.
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Additional resources for Linguistic Realization of Evidentiality in European Languages
More finegrained additional distinctions of evidential markers are also possible, some of which have already discussed above. e. they all correspond to either the basic ternary type, the reduced binary type, or to the extended type with more than three grammemes of evidentiality. However, another issue should be considered in this respect. An evidential system that appears to be reduced is, generally speaking, not always and necessarily a binary one. In some (however rare) cases we may find systems with more than two grammemes of evidentiality, but where the basic contrast between direct, inferential and reportative values is nevertheless absent.
Direct/Attested: visual auditory other sensory Indirect/Inferring: results reasoning Indirect/Reported: second-hand/third-hand/folklore Figure I. Summary of Willett 1988's classification The basic types of grammatically relevant oppositions within the semantic domain of evidentiality are very well captured in his system, but their internal subdivision seems to be insufficient. 1). One may also notice a somewhat too detailed subdivision of the reportative domain: whether the various values distinguished by Willett are really universal ones requires a more profound argumentation.
An example is the system of Quechua, but also that of a number of other languages (for a more detailed overview see Aikhenvald 2004: 43-46). Interestingly, according to the descriptions in Wiemer 2006 and Wiemer 2007, present-day Lithuanian also belongs to the languages in which such a system can be found, considering that in standard written Lithuanian two different strategies of the marking of evidentiality are distinguished. The reportative is realized by means of constructions with genuine particles (of the type ji dar ne-perskaiciusi laisko 'it is said that she has not read the letter yet', literally: 'she yet not-having-read ofletter'), whereas the inferential is realized by means of constructions with "impersonal" negative particle that do not exhibit agreement (of the type cia vaiko miegota 'it seems as if a child slept here', literally: 'here of-child it-was-asleep').
Linguistic Realization of Evidentiality in European Languages by Gabriele Diewald, Elena Smirnova