By Douglas J. Gould
Lippincott’s Pocket Neuroanatomy is a go-to reference, overview, and learn software for neuroanatomy and neuroscience with a powerful concentrate on high-yield themes and presentation. It offers the basic info wanted for path and board examination assessment in a concise, quick-reference layout with tables, full-color photos, and bullet-point textual content. The booklet includes a number of gains deciding on the scientific value of options, in addition to mnemonics to assist within the retention of facts. An index of phrases presents quick access to proof on all neuroanatomical constructions and pathways. This pocket-sized reference intuits how scholars normally research for checks and gives hugely distilled content material in a single simply moveable resource. it's perfect for scientific, dental, allied health and wellbeing, and graduate university scholars and applicable for classes in nursing, pre-pharmacy, pre-med, and kinesiology.
• An introductory bankruptcy on terminology and orientation to supply a concise evaluate of concepts
• Clinically major evidence for sensible application
• constant presentation of knowledge together with descriptions of constructions, connections, pathways, and functions
• studying aids equivalent to mnemonics and analogies that can assist you have in mind vital facts
• a whole index of phrases for speedy reference
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Additional resources for Lippincott's Pocket Neuroanatomy (Lippincott's Pocket Series)
The actual spinal nerve is a very short structure about 1 cm in length, although the term is often used loosely to describe the 22 LIPPINCOTT’S POCKET NEUROANATOMY nerves of the PNS. The spinal nerve terminates by dividing into an anterior and posterior ramus. Somatic plexuses, such as the cervical, brachial, and lumbosacral, are formed only by anterior rami; posterior rami remain segmental. Each pair of spinal nerves (or spinal cord segment) supplies a strip of skin with sensory innervation: a dermatome.
There are many exceptions; for instance, “slow pain” is carried on C fibers, not typically referred to as type IV fibers. Peripheral Nerves A nerve is a collection of axons bound together by connective tissue that serves to transmit electrical signals between the CNS and the periphery (FIG. 1-12). Structure Cranial nerve Description Significance ä Olfactory (CN I): Sensory only ä CN I: Special sense of smell ä Optic (CN II): Sensory only ä CN II: Special sense of vision ä Oculomotor (CN III): Motor only ä CN III: Motor to four of six extraocular muscles; parasympathetic to sphincter pupillae and ciliaris, and superior tarsal ä Trochlear (CN IV): Motor only ä CN IV: Motor to superior oblique (continued) 20 Structure Cranial nerve LIPPINCOTT’S POCKET NEUROANATOMY Description Significance ä Trigeminal (CN V): Both sensory and motor ä CN V: Sensory to face; motor to eight muscles, including the muscles of mastication ä Abducens (CN VI): Motor only ä CN VI: Motor to lateral rectus ä Facial (CN VII): Both sensory and motor ä CN VII: Motor to muscles of facial expression; sensory to external ear; parasympathetic to submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and lacrimal gland; special sense of taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue ä Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII): Sensory only ä CN VIII: Special sense of hearing and equilibrium ä Glossopharyngeal (CN IX): Both sensory and motor ä CN IX: Motor to stylopharyngeus; parasympathetic to parotid gland; sensory to pharynx and middle ear; special sense of taste to posterior 1/3 of tongue ä Vagus (CN X): Both sensory and motor ä CN X: Motor to palate, larynx, and pharynx; parasympathetic to thorax and abdomen; sensory to external ear ä Spinal accessory (CN XI): motor only ä CN XI: Motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius ä Hypoglossal (CN XII): Motor only ä CN XII: Motor to tongue musculature ä Divided into: ä 31 pairs Spinal nerve ä Formed by the merging of anterior and posterior roots ä Terminates as anterior and posterior primary rami ä 8 cervical spinal nerve pairs (C1–C8) ä 12 thoracic pairs (T1–T12) ä 5 lumbar pairs (L1–L5) ä 5 sacral pairs (S1–S5) ä 1 coccygeal pair ä May contain postganglionic sympathetic, somatic motor, and sensory fibers CHAPTER 1 t OVERVIEW OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 21 Longitudinal cerebral fissure Olfactory bulb Temporal pole Olfactory tract Anterior perforated substance Optic nerve (CN II) Optic tract Oculomotor nerve (CN III) Trochlear nerve (CN IV) Optic chiasm Sensory root Motor Trigeminal nerve root (CN V) Abducent nerve (CN VI) Facial nerve (CN VII) Intermediate nerve (CN VII) Infundibulum Mammillary body Pons Middle cerebellar peduncle Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) Medulla oblongata Olive Pyramid Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Vagus nerve (CN X) Anterior rootlets of C1 nerve Cerebellum Spinal cord Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) Inferior View Figure 1-12.
Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is composed of all parts of the nervous system that are not brain or spinal cord, including the cranial and spinal nerves, plexuses, and receptors. Peripheral Receptors Nervous system receptors (FIG. 1-11) may be classified by function, axon diameter or conduction velocity or fiber type, morphology or structure, or level of adaptation. Type of Mechanoreceptor Free nerve endings Merkel’s disc Structure Sensory Modality Unencapsulated: No connective Pain and tissue covering temperature on end of nerve fibers Crude touch Fiber Type Adaptation A-δ C (unmyelinated) A-β or type II Variable Slow (continued) 18 LIPPINCOTT’S POCKET NEUROANATOMY Type of Mechanoreceptor Pacinian corpuscle Structure Encapsulated: End of nerve fibers enclosed in connective tissue, which assists in receptor function Sensory Modality Fiber Type Pressure and vibration Meissner’s corpuscle Fine touch Ruffini corpuscle Tension and stretch Muscle spindle Muscle stretch Golgi tendon organ Muscle tension Adaptation Very fast A-β or type II A-α or type Ia A-β or type II Fast Slow A-α or type Ib Meissner’s corpuscle Merkel’s disk Epidermis Epidermaldermal border Free nerve ending Dermis Pacinian corpuscle Hair follicle receptor Figure 1-11.
Lippincott's Pocket Neuroanatomy (Lippincott's Pocket Series) by Douglas J. Gould