By Chandan K. Sen
This paintings encapsulates the makes use of of miRNA throughout stem cells, developmental biology, tissue harm and tissue regeneration. particularly individuals offer centred assurance of methodologies, intervention and tissue engineering.
Regulating nearly all organic strategies, the genome’s 1048 encoded microRNAs seem to carry significant promise for the capability fix and regeneration of tissues and organs in destiny treatments. during this paintings, 50 specialists tackle key subject matters of this fast-emerging box. Concisely summarizing and comparing key findings rising from basic learn into translational software, they element to the present and destiny importance of medical learn within the miRNA region. insurance encompasses all significant features of basic stem mobile and developmental biology, together with the makes use of of miRNA throughout fix and regeneration, and precise assurance of methodologies and interventions as they aspect in the direction of organ and tissue engineering
- Multi-colour textual content format with one hundred fifty color figures to demonstrate very important findings
- Take domestic messages encapsulate key classes all through text
- Short chapters supply concentrated dialogue and transparent ‘voice’
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Extra info for MicroRNA in Regenerative Medicine
Because Dicer-, Drosha-, and DGCR8-mutant ESCs exhibit proliferation defects, it is inferred that miRNAs are involved in their cell cycle regulation. ESCs exhibit a very specific expedited cell cycle due to a short transition from the G1 to the S phase . 9 miRNAs and Stem Cells progression through the cell cycle phases and are regulated by the sequential activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by cyclins. However, contrary to somatic cells, ESCs express very low levels of cell cycle inhibitors (p21cip1, p27Kip1, and p16INK4a) and exhibit an atypical cell cycle in which the major point of regulation is not in the restriction checkpoint .
Although homology search is highly efficient in identifying homological miRNAs, it cannot find totally novel miRNA sequences that have not yet been identified in any species. Algorithms Based on Comparative Genomics Comparative genomics identifies miRNA genes through comparison of two completely sequenced genomes. Unlike homology search, this method analyzes whole-genome hairpin structures. The miRNA precursors are identified 25 26 CHAPTER 1: MicroRNA Biogenesis in Regenerative Medicine among the hairpins based on unique characteristics that are highly conserved among species.
Another hESC-enriched miRNA, miR-92b, has also been shown to target p21 [155,158]. Overall, these data suggest that miRNAs can cooperate in maintaining the 31 32 CHAPTER 1: MicroRNA Biogenesis in Regenerative Medicine proliferative capacity of ESCs and are major players in the control of embryonic stem cell division. 3 miRNA Regulation of ESC Differentiation In addition to their proliferation defect, Dicer-KO and DGCR8-KO mESCs fail to down-regulate pluripotency factors upon differentiation [135,147,153,157,159].
MicroRNA in Regenerative Medicine by Chandan K. Sen