By Isaac S. Kohane
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Extra resources for Microarrays for an integrative genomics
One of the determinants of the location and handling of a polypeptide is a portion of the polypeptide called the signal peptide. , constructing and inserting a protein into the endoplasmic reticulum for further processing and secretion by the cell. Alternatively, particular proteins may be delivered after translation and chaperones can prevent proper folding until the protein reaches its correct destination. Transcriptional programs Initiation of the transcription process can be caused by external events or by a programmed event within the cell.
Conversely, no bioinformatics analysis will be sufficient to extract functional genomic knowledge if the expression space is not adequately explored. 3. Here we provide a context and motivation for an answer that biologists often find discomfiting: that very few genes are in fact significantly changed in expression in a way that is distinguishable from biological and measurement variation and noise.  We should emphasize at this point that there is an important distinction between mathematical or statistical significance, and biological significance.
Given the current level of reproducibility of expression measurements in microarrays, most investigators will choose a high level of specificity to reduce the false−positive rate. This will inevitably lead to a high false−negative rate. At this point the biologist will find that among the false negatives are genes that are known to have changed expression (but did not meet the significance threshold computed by the bioinformatician) which will lead naturally to the following worry: Many other genes of relevance to the biological system under investigation are being discarded from the analysis and follow−up.
Microarrays for an integrative genomics by Isaac S. Kohane