Download e-book for iPad: MicroscopyTechniques for MaterialsScience muya by A. Clarke, C. Eberhardt

By A. Clarke, C. Eberhardt

ISBN-10: 0849315522

ISBN-13: 9780849315527

ISBN-10: 1855735873

ISBN-13: 9781855735873

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However, if one considers the superposition of two waves with the same amplitude but slightly different angular frequencies (! ) and (! 12 (a) Schematic diagram of the complete dispersion curve for a material which is transparent to the visible part of the EM spectrum. When dn/ d is positive, the material absorbs strongly. (b) More detailed dispersion curves for some materials often used for lenses and prisms are shown. Note that dn=d is negative over the visible spectrum (and therefore, dn=dk will be positive in this region).

There are many books giving detailed expositions of electromagnetic theory, optics and quantum mechanics (see the bibliography at the end of this chapter). Therefore, for brevity and practicality, the approach taken here will be to present only those concepts, which are relevant to the microscopical techniques discussed later in the book. 2 Electromagnetic waves A mathematical model of a wavelike motion is based upon our commonsense experience of typical waves, for example, ocean waves, ripples on ponds and vibrations on string instruments.

Fortunately, the study of materials using microscopical methods only requires that material structure is explored down to the atomic, nanoscale sizes (10À9 m) rather than the incredibly small String Theory domain (10À20 m). For most purposes, especially research into mesoscale material structure, a spatial resolution of 100 nm will be more than adequate. In order to understand how most optical microscopes work and to use them effectively, one can approximate the ‘true’ nature of light propagation (whatever that might be) by using the simple analogies of classical wave motion and geometrical ray tracing.

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MicroscopyTechniques for MaterialsScience muya by A. Clarke, C. Eberhardt


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