By John B. Watkins (Auth.)
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Additional info for Modern Electronic Materials
Under these conditions, a fresh surface is being presented continually, and, since chromium has a greater vapour pressure than nickel, for any given temperature, the evaporation of chromium is always faster than that of nickel. At temperatures below 1395°C, the Langmuir formula shows that the evaporation of a component per unit area per unit time is related to its pressure at that particular temperature and to its atomic weight. Since the atomic weight of nickel is 59 and that of chromium 52, it is clear that the vapour pressure is the dominant parameter in the Langmuir expression.
Although flash evaporation ensures that correct proportions of nickel and chromium are deposited at the surface of the substrate, the conditions existing at the surface are important in determining the characteristic nature of the resistors ultimately produced. For example, the vacua employed are imperfect, and small traces of water vapour and oxygen are present inside the vacuum chamber. The presence of these gases, particularly when heated substrates are used, results in the oxidation of the impinging materials.
1. The valency bands define the energies of those electrons which take part in the chemical bonding together of the constituent atoms of the whole material. Because of the stability and bonding these valence bands are completely filled with electrons. The topmost energy band (the conduction band) of an insulator (or, as will be seen later, of a semiconductor) is completely empty, and, at zero temperature, no conduction occurs. In the case of some elements, however, the situation occurs where the topmost band is partially filled, and so electrons are free to move through the lattice since there are energy levels freely available.
Modern Electronic Materials by John B. Watkins (Auth.)