By Elisabeth Leiss, Werner Abraham
The amount goals at a common definition of modality or “illocutionary/speaker’s point of view strength” that's powerful sufficient to trap the total diversity of alternative subtypes and types of modalities in numerous languages. The vital notion is that modality is all-pervasive in language. this attitude on modality enables the mixing of covert modality in addition to peripheral circumstances of modality in overlooked domain names comparable to the modality of insufficieny, of attitudinality, or overlooked domain names resembling modality and illocutionary strength in finite vs. nonfinite and factive vs. non-factive subordinated clauses. In so much languages, modality encompasses modal verbs either of their root and epistemic meanings, a minimum of the place those languages have the principled distribution among root and epistemic modality within the first position (which is one essentially constrained, in its strict qualitative and quantitative feel, to the Germanic languages). additionally, this quantity discusses another problematic and in part hugely mysterious classification of modality triggers: modal debris as they're sported within the Germanic languages (except for English). it's argued within the contributions and the languages mentioned during this quantity how modal verbs and adverbials, subsequent to modal debris, are expressed, how they're interlinked with contextual elements akin to element, definiteness, individual, verbal factivity, and assertivity in preference to different attitudinal varieties. an important idea used and argued for is perspectivization (a sub-concept of attainable international semantics). Language teams coated intimately and in comparison are Slavic, Germanic, and South East Asian. the quantity will curiosity researchers in theoretical and utilized linguistics, typology, the semantics/pragmatics interface, and language philosophy because it is a part of a bigger venture constructing an alternate method of common Grammar that's suitable with functionalist methods.
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Additional resources for Modes of Modality: Modality, typology, and universal grammar
Interpreting modals by phase heads is below the subjects (for similar discussions, see Cinque 1999; Abraham 2002; Stowell 2004). (10) a. All users can post messages (root) =‘all users are permitted to post messages’ Scope: subject > modal (Butler 2003: 980) This fact can also be explained by assuming that epistemic modals are interpreted in the CP domain, higher than TP, and that root modals are in the vP domain below TP. This section introduces further cross-linguistic evidence supporting the hypothesis that epistemic and root modals are interpreted by the different structural positions: epistemic modals are above TP, and root modals are below TP.
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1997. Modalities. Ms, Vanderbilt University. Butler, Jonny 2003. A minimalist treatment of modality. Lingua 113: 997–1029. Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris. Chomsky, Noam. 1995. The Minimalist Program. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. Chomsky, Noam. 2000. Minimalist inquiries. In Step by Step: Essays in Minimalist Syntax in Honor of Howard Lasnik, Roger Martin, David Michaels & Juan Uriagereka (eds), 89–155. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Derivation by phase.
Modes of Modality: Modality, typology, and universal grammar by Elisabeth Leiss, Werner Abraham