By P. K. Boss, C. Davies (auth.), Kalliopi A. Roubelakis-Angelakis (eds.)
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Extra resources for Molecular Biology & Biotechnology of the Grapevine
However, the use of extraction media including ingredients such as borate buffer, Na2C03. , 1995). The importance of soluble invertases in controlling the composition of sugars stored in fruit vacuoles is well demonstrated in tomato. , 1991; Stromme I, 1992). Other species, that accumulate sucrose in preference to fructose and glucose, have low levels of vacuolar invertase. , 1996). A similar relationship between the composition of stored sugars and acid invertase activity has been postulated in grapes.
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the first enzyme involved in anthocyanin production. It catalyses the production of cinnamic acid from phenylalanine (Hanson and Havir, 1981). , 1994). , 1994). The cinnamic acid produced by the action of PAL is then converted to ~ LDOX ~ F3'H UFGT ~ OGIue I Cyanidin I , t MT "'- OH glucoside Cyanidin-3- r ... I i HO .... ~ LDOX He) glucoside Petunidin-3- OM OH glucoside ... U:GT Delphinidln-3- ~ IDelphlnldln I MT : (DEHYDRATASE) ... - ~ ~". "'. A. ~ I Leucodelphinidin I ~ - Proanthocyanidins ...........
The anthocyanin content of grapes increases during ripening, and the accumulation begins at veraison. The extent of this accumulation is influenced by several variables including differences in cultivars, seasons, production site and cultural practices (see Mazza and Miniati, 1993). Measurements of the final anthocyanin content of ripe grapes can vary considerably. For example, in a review published by Mazza and Miniati (1993), Pinot noir was recorded as containing 33 mg of anthocyanins per 100 g fresh weight of berries whereas the cultivar Vincent contained 439 mg/IOO g.
Molecular Biology & Biotechnology of the Grapevine by P. K. Boss, C. Davies (auth.), Kalliopi A. Roubelakis-Angelakis (eds.)