By Alice Driver
More or much less Dead analyzes how such violence opposed to ladies has been represented in information media, books, motion pictures, images, and paintings. Alice motive force argues that some of the cultural stories frequently show nervousness or feedback approximately how ladies traverse and inhabit the geography of Ciudad Juárez and extra the assumption of the general public lady physique as hypersexualized. instead of trying to find justice, a few of the media—art, images, or even graffiti—often reuse victimized our bodies in sensationalist, fascinating methods. with a purpose to counteract such perspectives, neighborhood activists mark town with graffiti and memorials that create a residing reminiscence of the violence and take a look at to humanize the sufferers of those crimes.
The word “more or much less lifeless” was once coined by way of Chilean writer Roberto Bolaño in his novel 2666, a penetrating fictional examine of Juárez. driving force explains that sufferers are “more or much less useless” simply because their our bodies are by no means came across or aren’t safely pointed out, leaving households with an uncertainty lasting for decades—or forever.
The author’s transparent, specific journalistic kind tackles the ethics of representing feminicide sufferers in Ciudad Juárez. creating a contrast among the phrases “femicide” (the homicide of women or ladies) and “feminicide” (murder as a gender-driven event), one in every of her interviewees says, “Women are killed for being ladies, and they're sufferers of masculine violence simply because they're girls. it's a crime of hate opposed to the feminine gender. those are crimes of power.”
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Extra resources for More or Less Dead: Feminicide, Haunting, and the Ethics of Representation in Mexico
For example, at the beginning of the book there is a photograph of a house made of cardboard waste leftover from the maquiladora with a girl showing a ragged doll. This is as violent as [photographer] Jaime Bailleres’s photo of the face of a dead woman who was raped and burned. Driver: Do you use the term feminicide? Cardona: I try to use, whenever possible, legal terms. Driver: What is your opinion about the debate over the evolution of the term feminicide? Is it more appropriate to talk about 28 Interview • feminicides or to talk about violence against women?
Factories bloomed like cement flowers in the desert. Unemployment dwindled to the lowest rate in the hemisphere. 28 However, the narrative of seemingly positive economic markers Feminicide and Memory Creation 19 • does not lead to peace and prosperity for those working in the factories. Cardona recounts: “Many who came to cash in on the bonanza saw their cardboard and pallet houses burn, their daughters disappear” (1). The factories were built to take advantage of cheap labor and duty-free or tariff- free zones.
In a 2004 article in La Jornada, Jenaro Villamil discusses the position of Mexican author Carlos Monsiváis on feminicide. Monsiváis states his belief that feminicide 10 Introduction • should be classified as a hate crime: “Feminicide is a descriptive term, but to begin to classify the crimes as hate crimes makes us reflect seriously about the relationship between machismo as a physical manifestation and the investigation of the crimes” (1). Since the time when Monsiváis made this comment, the term feminicide has evolved theoretically.
More or Less Dead: Feminicide, Haunting, and the Ethics of Representation in Mexico by Alice Driver