By Hamid R. Rategh
In the prior 10 years large attempt has been devoted to advertisement instant neighborhood quarter community (WLAN) structures. regardless of most of these efforts, even though, not one of the latest structures has been profitable, quite often because of their low info premiums. The expanding call for for WLAN structures which can aid info charges in far more than 20 Mb/s enticed the FCC to create an unlicensed nationwide details infrastructure (U–NII) band at five GHz. This frequency band presents three hundred MHz of spectrum in segments: a two hundred MHz(5.15–5.35 GHz) and a a hundred MHz (5.725–5.825 GHz) frequency band. This newly published spectrum, and the quick pattern of CMOS scaling, provide a chance to layout WLAN platforms with excessive facts fee and occasional expense. one of many present criteria at five GHz is the ecu excessive functionality radio LAN (HIPERLAN) normal that helps info charges as excessive as 20 Mb/s. one of many major construction blocks of every instant method is the f- quency synthesizer. Phase–locked loops (PLLs) are universally used to layout radio frequency synthesizers. lowering the facility intake of the frequency dividers of a PLL has regularly been a problem. during this ebook, we introduce an alternate answer for traditional flipflop established xiv MULTI–GHZ FREQUENCY SYNTHESIS & department frequency dividers. An injection–locked frequency divider (ILFD) takes benefit of the narrowband nature of the instant structures and employs resonators to exchange off bandwidth for power.
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Extra resources for Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis & Division: Frequency Synthesizer Design for 5 GHz Wireless LAN Systems
The maximum operational frequency of these dividers is determined by the speed of the latches. As mentioned earlier SCL latches can potentially operate at higher frequencies than their CMOS counterparts, with lower power consumption. An example of an SCL latch is shown in Fig. 4. The operation is as follows. When input, Clk, is high the signal on the D port is passed to the output over a bandwidth set by the output RC time constant, where R is the output resistance and C 45 Frequency Dividers is the total output capacitance.
First, operation at higher frequencies is feasible with SCL latches. Secondly, power consumption in both CMOS and SCL latches, when designed properly, is proportional to age, where is voltage swing, is supply volt- is frequency, and C is total capacitance. Therefor, due to the smaller voltage swing of SCL latches the power consumption can be reduced considerably at high frequencies. As mentioned earlier an important characteristic of digital dividers is the feasibility of implementing a variable division ratio.
With the assumption that the signal is a random process with a uniform power spectral density across the channel bandwidth and is independent of the LO phase noise, the signal to interference ratio is approximated by: where is the close–in phase noise in (dBc/Hz). As the loop bandwidth increases it is important to reduce the close–in phase noise to prevent signal to interference degradation. 2. Linearized PLL models A typical phase–locked loop of the type shown in Fig. 2 can be modeled as a linear system, as shown in Fig.
Multi-GHz Frequency Synthesis & Division: Frequency Synthesizer Design for 5 GHz Wireless LAN Systems by Hamid R. Rategh