By Michael Murray
Whereas the matter of evil continues to be a perennial problem to theistic trust, little recognition has been paid to the targeted challenge of animal soreness and agony. This absence is principally conspicuous in our Darwinian period while theists are compelled to confront the truth that animal soreness and discomfort has long past on for no less than hundreds of thousands of years, via billions of animal generations. Evil of this kind will not be in particular challenging if the normal of factors for evil hired through theists may be utilized during this example to boot. yet there's the important challenge: all or many of the motives for evil mentioned via theists appear impotent to give an explanation for the truth of animal soreness and pain via evolutionary heritage. Nature crimson in teeth and Claw addresses the evil of animal soreness and discomfort without delay, scrutinizing reasons which have been provided for such evil.
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Additional info for Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering
Do in fact serve to explain both. I don’t think we are entitled to much conﬁdence that this is the case . . or that it isn’t the case. Second, it is not clear that even if the explanations relevant to (13∗ ) are not directly relevant to (13∗∗ ), the explanations for the ﬁrst should not still undermine our conﬁdence in the second. This is what the ‘stupid airline’ example was supposed to illustrate. If a number of practices of the airline are unreasonable to me, and I then come into possession of a number of good reasons for some of these practices, this will, under suitable conditions, undermine my conﬁdence that the other practices that seem unreasonable really are.
For example, perhaps it would never be permissible to allow a child to die a painful, lingering death due to cancer, even if it is a necessary means to some great good. Unfortunately, arguments of this sort will all be grounded in moral principles that are highly contentious. ¹³ For reasons of the sort we have been outlining above, the Logical Argument is not much defended these days. Instead most of the discussion of the problem of evil focuses on a second version, to which we now turn: the Evidential Argument.
Two things might be thought to follow from the reply of the inscrutabilist if it is indeed correct. First, this reply would succeed in undercutting the support for (13) and thereby defanging the Direct Evidential Argument. Since the reasons for evil would be inscrutable if present, we can show the atheist that the appearances are no more trustworthy here than they are in the doctor case. ²³ Second, and just as relevant my favorite team was behind by 30 points, I concluded that they lost because, given what I know about the rules of basketball, I could not conceive of a plausible scenario in which they went on to win.
Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering by Michael Murray