By Andrew D.M. Smith, Graeme Trousdale, Richard Waltereit
The articles during this quantity research a couple of severe concerns in grammaticalization reports, together with the connection among grammaticalization and pragmaticalization, subjectification and intersubjectification, and grammaticalization and language touch. The contributions ponder info from a extensive variety of spoken and signed languages, together with Greek, jap, Nigerian Pidgin, Swedish, and Turkish signal Language. The authors paintings in various theoretical frameworks, and draw on a couple of learn traditions. the amount can be of fundamental curiosity to historic linguists, notwithstanding the range of methods and resources of information suggest that the amount is usually most probably have enormous basic attraction.
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The examples from Turkish Sign Language (Türk İşaret Dili, TİD) and Hong Kong Sign Language (HKSL) in (10bc) are similar in this respect: in both, only the sentence-final manual negative element carries a negative headshake. A part of the TİD example (10b) is illustrated in Figure 1. Actually, the head starts to move to the left towards the end of the pronoun index1 (second still). At the onset of the negator no-no, it is in neutral position (third still) and then moves to the right during the articulation of the negative sign (fourth still).
Repeated headshake from left to right accompanying the VGT sentence (14a). Â�Copyright © 2006 by Ishara Press. Reprinted with permission Crucially, VGT and IPSL do have manual clausal negators at their disposal, but the use of such signs in a negative utterance is optional. In VGT, the negative sign not, when used, may either precede (15a) or follow the verb (the latter position being the more common one), while in IPSL, the manual negator always appears in post-verbal position, which – given that IPSL is an SOV language – is at the same time the clause-final position (15b).
First, it seems clear that the choice of negation system is independent of the word order type: in both systems, we find SVO and SOV languages. Second, in all sign languages for which a basic SOV order has been established, the manual negator tends to occupy the clause-final position, no matter whether the negation system is non-manual or manual dominant. Thirdly, all shared sign languages for which negation has been described to date display a manual dominant negation system. In the next section, we will elaborate on these findings from a typological and diachronic perspective.
New Directions in Grammaticalization Research by Andrew D.M. Smith, Graeme Trousdale, Richard Waltereit