By Edward Creutz
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Additional resources for Nuclear Instrumentation II / Instrumentelle Hilfsmittel der Kernphysik II
10) where No is the total number of ion pairs formed. 11) which, of course, is equal to the total effective positive ion charge in the normal case. If the range of the primary particles is not negligibly small compared with b, wall and end effects cannot be neglected. The calculation of the geometrical effect is then generally much more tedious, especially since the distribution of ionization density along the track (Bragg curve l ) must be taken into account. The spectrum may have to be obtained by graphical analysis, especially in case the chamber has no simple symmetry, and V(x, y, z) has been determined by an analogue measurement.
The gain should be stabilized by use of inverse feedback. Many amplifier designs call for the use of three feedback loops, one in a preamplifier closely attached to the ionization chamber, and two more in a main amplifier unit. Inverse feedback reduces distortion of pulse amplitudes by the amplifier to a negligible level. y) Pulse shaping and signal-to-noise-ratio. Perhaps the most difficult part of the problem of choosing design constants for a pulse amplifier is connected with pulse shaping. The gain characteristics of the amplifier as a function of frequency must be chosen to give the maximum signal-to-noise ratio consistent with experimental requirements on counting rates, pulse rise times, etc.
SELIGER and A. SCHWEBEL: Nucleonics 12, Ko. 7 (1954). Also C. C. SMITH and H. M. SELIGER: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 24,474 (1953). 2 3 4 P. J. S. AEC Document ANL-4702. 1951. C. D. JANNEY and B. J. MOYER: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 19, 667 (1948). G. L. BROWNELL and H. S. LOCKHART: Nucleonics 10, (2) 26 (1952). Sects. 25, 26. 43 Cosmic ray applications. A flow type chamber for measuring low energy beta radiation in gases is described by QUINN!. Gas flowing at the rate of 32 liter per minute and containing between 10-10 and 10-11 curie per liter of S35 in the form of S02 was monitored continuously.
Nuclear Instrumentation II / Instrumentelle Hilfsmittel der Kernphysik II by Edward Creutz