By Curtis A Corum
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Extra info for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with the Distant Dipolar Field
1 Repetition and Recovery In many NMR and MRI experiments the system is re-exited before full relaxation (before waiting 5 × T1 ) has occurred. Often this is to speed up the total time necessary to make an image in MRI or to acquire a 2d NMR spectrum. The time between multiple excitations is called the “repetition time” and denoted by T R. There is an optimum RF excitation pulse to maximize the signal given a specific T R and T1 which is called the Ernst angle [38, p. 155]. 2: Transverse magnetization obtained in the steady state by exciting at the Ernst − TR angle θE = arccos(e T1 ) ——– vs.
The equation for magnetization with (isotropic) diffusion in the rotating frame is ∂M = D∇2 M. 1 Diffusion Weighting with Gradients Application of gradients during an NMR or MRI experiment can cause additional attenuation of the signal when there is significant diffusion. In early experiments  this was recognized as a confounding factor in measuring T2 . Later, NMR and MRI measurement of the diffusion properties of solutions and biological samples developed into a rich subfield in itself [53, 52, 51, 54].
The term spin-spin relaxation originates from the mechanism whereby the field from other nuclei and nearby molecules, atoms, or ions is a random function of time, and causes a slight change in phase of a given nuclear moment’s precession. These random phase variations accumulate over time, causing a reduction in the net macroscopic transverse magnetization. The details of transverse relaxation mechanisms are beyond the scope of this dissertation; the reader is referred to references [30, 32, 34, 39, 35, 36, 9].
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance with the Distant Dipolar Field by Curtis A Corum