Download e-book for iPad: Oxidation of Zircaloy Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear by

Read or Download Oxidation of Zircaloy Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors PDF

Best nuclear books

New PDF release: Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation,

An outstanding creation to the elemental options of nuclear medication physicsThis 3rd version of necessities of Nuclear medication Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely constructed illustrated assessment and introductory advisor to nuclear drugs physics and instrumentation. in addition to easy, revolutionary, hugely illustrated issues, the authors current nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering strategies basically and concisely.

Download e-book for iPad: Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasonics,and Thermography by Götz Rassow (auth.), Sol Nudelman Ph.D., Dennis D. Patton

The cloth during this quantity was once ready and picked up over the last 4 years with the transforming into awareness technical revolution was once in growth for diagnostic drugs. It turned transparent that for the big variety of imaging tools and strategies discovering their manner into purposes for learn and scientific medication, there has been a lack of reference and textual content books for the scientist and engineer starting within the box.

Energy from Nuclear Fission: An Introduction - download pdf or read online

This booklet offers an outline on nuclear physics and effort creation from nuclear fission. It serves as a readable and trustworthy resource of knowledge for someone who desires to have a well-balanced opinion approximately exploitation of nuclear fission in energy crops. The textual content is split into elements; the 1st covers the fundamentals of nuclear forces and houses of nuclei, nuclear collisions, nuclear balance, radioactivity, and offers a close dialogue of nuclear fission and suitable subject matters in its software to power creation.

Additional info for Oxidation of Zircaloy Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors

Sample text

6e-7 L (cm) Figure 2-18. 5 VSHE, as a function of the pH at the BOI and the barrier layer thickness. 41 3e-7 3e-7 Lss (cm) 2e-7 2e-7 1e-7 5e-8 0 -5e-8 4 5 6 7 8 9 pH Figure 2-19. 5 VSHE, as a function of pH at the BOI, showing the condition for depassivation (Lss →0). Log-linear plot of the total current density as a function of the pH at the BOI are displayed in Figure 2-20. In this instance, the total current density varies exponentially with the pH. This is because the current density for the generation of oxygen vacancies at the MBI is not a function of the respective defect concentrations at that interface, whereas it is a function of the defect concentrations at the BOI, and an expression of the current density, based on the reactions at the BOI, would require knowledge of these concentrations [15].

The solution in the pore interior is assumed to be dilute, so that aWBOI is taken to be 1. Substitution of Equations (2-52) and (2-53) into Equation (2-46) yields: [ BOI m I ≈ F ⋅ 4k1 − 2k 2 + 6θ ⋅ k 5 ⋅ ( a OH − ) ] (2-54) Note that the current density is a function of V and Lbl. Accordingly, for any arbitrary changes δV and δLbl, we can derive the following expressions by assuming that θ is constant: 19 BOI m δI = F ⋅ [4δk1 − 2δk 2 + 6θ ⋅ δk 5 ( a OH ) ] − and (2-55) δk1 = a1k1δV + b1k1δLbl − a1k1 Rol δI (2-56) δk 2 = a 2 k 2δV + b2 k 2δLbl − a 2 k 2 Rol δI (2-57) δk 5 = a5 k 5δV − a5 k 5 Rol δI (2-58) Substitution of Equations (2-56) to (2-58) into Equation (2-55) yields: BOI m (4a1k1 − 2a2 k2 + 6θ ⋅ a5 k5 (aOH − ) )δV + ( 4b1k1 − 2b2 k 2 )δLbl   BOI m + Rol [−4a1k1 + 2a2 k2 − 6θ ⋅ (aOH − ) a5 k5 ]δI  δI = F  (2-59) The variations in I, V and Lbl are sinusoidal in an EIS measurement, so that we can write: δ I = ∆ I ⋅ e j ⋅ω ⋅ t δV = ∆ V ⋅ e (2-60) j ⋅ω ⋅t (2-61) δ L bl = ∆ L bl ⋅ e j ⋅ω ⋅t C BOI OH − 10 − pK w ( T ) − 6 = C HBOI+ (2-62) (for the unit cm3) (2-63) where Kw(T) is the water dissociation constant, which is a function of temperature [4].

The data were checked experimentally by stepping the frequencies from high-to-low and then immediately back from low-to-high, with the impedance being measured at each step, to ascertain that the same values were obtained at equivalent frequencies in the two directions. If the system is in the steady state, which means the thickness and current are independent of time, the impedance data should match in the two frequency step directions. Coincidence is observed in all impedance measurements for passive films formed at different potentials.

Download PDF sample

Oxidation of Zircaloy Cladding in Water-Cooled Nuclear Reactors


by Michael
4.5

Rated 4.34 of 5 – based on 24 votes
This entry was posted in Nuclear.