By Johan Galtung
'I by no means come across the writings of Dr. Johan Galtung with no recalling what the thinker Ralph Waldo Emerson stated of the real student, specifically, that "He is the world's eye. he's the world's heart." ' Daisaku Ikeda, President, Soka Gakkai foreign Johan Galtung is the world's leading philosopher in peace reviews. This outstanding selection of essays represents his reaction to the occasions of September eleven 2001. it's a philosophical assortment on terror, struggle and peace which engages with the most important matters and hindrances we are facing in trying to create peace world wide. Focusing specifically at the Pacific sector, he provides a grounded review of the background of the nearby strength dynamics, and current customers for peace. subject matters lined comprise the hegemony of the united states; the ecu viewpoint; the U.S. courting with Japan and Asia; decolonization; and peace events within the age of globalization.
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Additional info for Pacific Essays: Terrorism, the Pacific Hemisphere, Globalization, & Peace Studies (Constructive Peace Studies)
P65 19 12/8/2004, 4:41 PM Chapter Two The USA became a “mother country” with overseas colonies from 1898, walking into the shoes of a decaying Spanish empire with the Spanish–American wars in the Caribbean (Cuba) and the Pacific (the Philippines, Samoa, Guam; killing 600,000 Filipinos), annexing Hawai’i in 1898 after the military coup in 1893 had established settler colonialism. This was 1776 in reverse: first settle, then install mother-country colonialism. Decolonisation from the mother countries began where colonisation started, in the Americas, first in the north with Washington-Jefferson, then in the south with Bolívar-Martin-O’Higgins.
Moreover, we can have either without the other. Colonisation is an extreme exercise of power; decolonisation, in principle, an extreme exercise in the devolution of power. Of power there are four kinds, generally flowing upwards, with cultural power legitimising economic and military power that in turn serve as bases for political decisions: POLITICAL POWER (decision power) ➝ ➝ MILITARY POWER ➝ ECONOMIC POWER ➝ ➝ ➝ (reward power) (punitive power) CULTURAL POWER (normative power) Colonialism begins in the mind, with the distasteful idea that other peoples/lands can be owned, and the accompanying notion that they ought to be owned.
The USA has not reached that stage, nor, it seems, has Japan. Regulation of economic conflict might have helped more than disarmament. And dissociative policies, interacting less, staying away from each other like couples unable to live together. Objection: they did this for some time, practicing the Taft– Katsura spheres of interest. That did not help the peoples under US or Japanese control and attack. There was the Japan–USA war. But there was also the other war, against Asia, to be discussed.
Pacific Essays: Terrorism, the Pacific Hemisphere, Globalization, & Peace Studies (Constructive Peace Studies) by Johan Galtung