By Marcel den Dikken
Debris are phrases that don't swap their shape via inflection and don't healthy simply into the demonstrated method of elements of speech. Examples contain the destructive particle "not," the infinitival particle "to" (as in "to go"), and do and enable in "do inform me" and "let's go." debris investigates the limitations at the distribution and site of verbal debris. a formal figuring out of those constraints yields perception into the constitution of varied secondary predicative structures. beginning out from an in depth research of advanced particle structures, den Dikken brings forth money owed of triadic buildings and Dative Shift, and the connection among dative and transitive causative constructions--all of them equipped at the simple structural template proposed from advanced particle structures. Drawing on facts from Norwegian, English, Dutch, German, West Flemish, and different languages, this publication will curiosity a large viewers of scholars and experts.
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Extra resources for Particles: On the Syntax of Verb-Particle, Triadic and Causative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax)
18 Panicles Suppose now that, following Li (1990:408), we were to adopt a definition of c-command in terms of domination, as in (31): (31) a c-commands B iff a does not dominate fi and fi is not excluded by the node immediately dominating a. Since an element a. is dominated by node 7 iff a. is dominated by every segment of 7 (cf. Chomsky 1986:7), the definition of c-command in (31) will allow an incorporate in an incorporation structure of the type in (32), below, to c-command its trace directly.
1 The clause-final constituent as a SC predicate An initial claim that I would like to make and support here is that the boldface constituents in (1) are predicates of SCs. To argue this effectively involves (i) showing that these phrases pass independently established tests for predicativity, and (ii) arguing that subject-predicate relationships of the type featured by (1) are to be structurally represented in terms of a SC. The claim that in a complex particle construction like They made John out a liar the clause-final NP a liar entertains a relationship of predication with the NP sandwiched between the verb and the particle out is semantically well motivated — it is John to whom the property of being a liar is attributed.
B. (51) a. b. dat hij de berg af (mee) wilde (mee) rijden. ' dat hij (mee) wilde (mee) rijden de berg af. that he (along) wanted (along) drive the mountain down dat hij de heuvel op (door) wilde (door) lopen. ' dat hij (door) wilde (door) lopen de heuvel op. that he (on) wanted (on) walk the hill up Full SCs do not undergo movement (cf. Den Dikken 1987). Hence the maximal constituent that can have undergone PP-over-V in these examples is the PPpredicate of SC. Since, however, the postposition is still physically part of the extraposed phrase in the b-examples in (50) and (51), hence has not moved out of the predicate of the resultative SC, these examples are hard to reconcile with an account of postpositional phrases in terms of P-movement (which would of necessity remove P from the moved PP).
Particles: On the Syntax of Verb-Particle, Triadic and Causative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) by Marcel den Dikken