By Sharat Chandra Gupta
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Extra resources for Raft Foundations: Design and Analysis with a Practical Approach
Average '6' K, Value in in mm K N / ~ ~ BM, in KNm/m Ratio of MdMin. 0 31,32,41,40 18402 14156 28 29,30,39,38 4 6 6 6 Mu My, 6. 85 Maximum Ratio in any Element Note: Set-I - For Combination of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction - 34976,42466,58460 KN/m3 Set-I1-For Combination of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction - 22731,20615, 18567 KN/m3 Observation (a) above is justified because Example 1 is unsymmetrical in plan in respect of both axis as compared to Example 2 which is symmetrical abput Y axis. This symmetry results in lower variation in the value of bending moment in X direction.
Competence of these structural designers varies widely. On one extreme are those who have some knowledge of structural design, but do not have much of guidance from their seniors. Such engineers when faced with problem of undertaking design of raft foundation will pick up a text book or manual on reinforced concrete design and follow the procedure laid down which in most cases would be conventional combined footing and would normally be safe ut expensive. On the other extreme are top class engineers who have wide experience and knowledge of structural designs with ability to analyse the problem, carry out alternative analysis and design a raft foundation which would not only be safe, but would be economical.
It is only on very soft soils that the contact pressure against the mat foundation approaches linear distribution as shown in Fig. 1 (c). Therefore, it is commonly justified to design a mat on mud, soft clay, peet or organic soil by the conventional rigid method using uniform pressure. In fact assumption of rigid footings with uniform soil pressure results in designing the raft for assumed bending moments which are larger than the actual bending moments. The resulting design is conservative generally but may not be economical.
Raft Foundations: Design and Analysis with a Practical Approach by Sharat Chandra Gupta