By Claudia G. Flores Gonzáles
Those case experiences supplement the sooner groundbreaking paintings of normal catastrophe Hotspots: an international probability research released in April 2005. 3 case reports tackle particular dangers: landslides, typhoon surges and drought. an extra, 3 case reviews handle neighborhood multi-hazard events in Sri Lanka, the Tana River basin in Kenya, and town of Caracas, Venezuela.
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Extra resources for Risk Management of Natural Disasters
Irrigation was widely practiced, and some largescale works were in operation. The water buffalo, indigenous to Southeast Asia, was in common use. the iron plough, hoe, and sickle were primary implements of cultivation, and rice was the staple grain in the middle and lower Yangtze River Valley. During the early Christian era, rice cultivation extended southward in China, and manuring and transplanting were adopted. In the period from A D . D. 500, rice became a staple in central and east China south of the Yangtze River.
But it is clear that, in relative terms, hired labor stands to gain as much if not more than farm operators from the introduction of the new technology. Alternatively, where yields have stagnated, no gains accrued to hired labor. In absolute terms, however, there is no question that the distribution of benefits from technological change and increased income earnings is determined largely by the ownership of resources. It would be difficult to argue that the introduction of new rice technology has had any significant impact on the pattern of resource ownership, which is much more skewed in South and Southeast Asia than in East Asia.
In summary, the pragmatic balance of low rice prices, government subsidies for irrigation, investment in research and extension, and subsidized credit has proved very successful in a number of Asian countries in achieving policy objectives and in increasing rice production. However, it would be wrong to conclude that these policies achieved economic efficiency either for specific countries or for the region as a whole. Rice production increases, whether encouraged through price supports in the medium-to-high income countries or through other forms of subsidy in the low-income countries, have been achieved at considerable cost.
Risk Management of Natural Disasters by Claudia G. Flores Gonzáles